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tation, knew that Dreyfus was prove that the bordereau was guilty. But there was a further not in his handwriting. Counterpurpose, and that was to put evidence in abundance was proBillot in Esterhazy's power by duced. As already stated, the enabling Esterhazy to expose indictment was a pleading for the use of the secret document. the accused. If what is above

The effect of Matthieu Drey- written be correct, the result fus's accusation was that a differ

a foregone conclusion, ent theory became necessary to That it is correct is definitely account for what was manifest substantiated under Du Paty's on the face of the bordereau. own hand in the letter above It was so certain that men who referred to. So compromising knew Esterhazy's writing-a was this letter, that when Esterclass of witnesses much more hazy's conduct was inquired valuable than experts—would into later by directions of M. declare the bordereau to be his, Cavaignac, a letter was written that it was imperative to adopt by Colonel Kerdrain to say that a new line—viz., that the writer unless this letter of Du Paty de of the bordereau had copied or Clam's was returned at once, even traced Esterhazy's writing. Esterhazy's advocate Tézevas That this was arranged between would not be allowed to aphim and his co-conspirators in pear. the War Office is certain. It Next came the Zola maniwas a desperate change of front, festo and the Zola trials, both considering that Dreyfus's con full of interest, but which canviction had proceeded on the not be noticed here, except to allegation that it was in his say that they produced so much own writing, and this had been agitation that it was felt necesproclaimed by the ‘Matin' as sary to try the effect of another * clear.” Every day, as the parliamentary announcement. preliminary inquiry proceeded, M. Cavaignac, the new Minister Esterhazy was kept informed of War, had attacked the preas to all that was going on, vious Ministry for “weakness and carefully instructed by his and hesitation." He was not friends in the blue spectacles weak, and he did not hesitate. and false beards, either directly He did not go back on the or through his cousin and his bordereau. He had new mamistress by notes. Of course terial. He quoted the “Canthese notes were to be destroyed; aille de D” letter and but equally, of course, they were

another letter which also renot, and lately some of them ferred to D, and then have been revealed. An analysis read a letter, which he said of one recently published in fac- formed part of a complete corsimile would be interesting, but respondence, in which Dreyfus this is not possible here. Suffice is mentioned by name, and it to say that it is palpably spoken of as “ce juif.” This the letter of conspirator announcement

received against truth and justice. tumultuously by the Chamber.

Esterhazy was brought to It was ordered to be posted in trial, and experts examined to the 36,000 communes of France.

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Thus once more it was sup- exposed made it desirable that posed that an end had come. the reporter should not be But Colonel Picquart promptly, selected from those who had in a letter to the Premier, de- families. They have

have been clared that he could prove that grossly insulted by a President the two letters with D - of another division, who cyniccould not apply to Dreyfus, ally avows himself a partisan in and that the Dreyfus letter the matter they are inquiring bore all the characteristics of into, and then accuses them of a forgery.

partisanship, and without Well, the two documents did word to them by way of inquiry, not apply to Dreyfus, and the accepts all the miserable tattle third was a forgery. Henry of lobby attendants, and makes was compelled to admit that he

a weapon out of any trifle that forged it, and died the same can be twisted into an accusanight by his own hand, or by tion. It is needless in this the hand of another.

country to characterise such On 13th July 1898 Colonel conduct. It was intended as Picquart was arrested and put a political move of a strong in prison, and he still remains partisan to excite public opinion an untried prisoner to this day, against the criminal judges, but now on a charge of forgery of it has fallen flat, and is utterly the petit-bleu which has been discredited. It was too absurd made against him. But he has even in a country where abthe consolation that if there has surdity seems to pass for logic been corruption in the General and reason. Staff he has probed it, and if At the present moment exthere was misleading of the traordinary matter is coming nation he has corrected it. He to light in the publication of it is above all others that has the evidence taken before the made the refusal of considera- Criminal Chamber. This may tion of the question of revision not be commented on now, or an impossibility. Not to pre- until all is known. judge a case still under inquiry, The reader will

now have no more will be said here on the some idea of what is the state charge against Picquart.

of France. It is lamentable One word at present on the to see that there is scarcely a latest phases of the case. The man of any standing who in Criminal Chamber of the Court connection with this affair is of Cassation resolved to con not under the stigma of imsider the question of revision. puted falsehood and dishonour, From that moment torrents of and those who can shake off abuse were poured on them the stigma can only do so by from the clerical, anti-Semitic, transferring it to the shoulders and anti-Republican press, and of their traducers. Society is it is pathetic to read that the at war. Judges accuse other President declares that he se- judges. Magistrates impugn lected a bachelor as reporter to the good faith of other magisthe Court, as the threats to trates. Officers of rank and which the judges were daily important public officials openly

on

charge each other with lying aggravate his punishment, and and fraud. No reputation is once to take away his appeal safe. A violent press denounces from the Constitutional Triand threatens those who are bunal which was investigating independent enough to refuse it. Since he was deported, to have opinions forced upon France has had no tranquillity. them, or to shape their course Riotous murder, pillage, terrorin duty in subservience to dicta- ism, duelling, suicides, public tion. Men held in the highest uproar, forgery, fraud, lying, respect are deprived of public slander, threatenings, vituperaoffices because they ask for re- tion, outrage

individual vision; others are expelled from liberty, scandals in the adthe Order of the Legion of ministration of justice, and Honour for no other offence. countless other evils, have made Life is made almost unendur- her a sorry spectacle to gods and able to unoffending citizens men. And of all this Dreyfus for no other reason than that is the negative cause. Helpless they are Jews, or if not Jews in his durance vile, he is the because they demand that a most potent factor in France's Jew shall have the same justice life to-day. He is indeed her as a Christian or an infidel. ruler negatively. What is to The supreme judges of the be the end ?

be the end ? Dreyfus has a land are held up to public place in history that few other execration, not for giving a Frenchmen of the last decade judgment, but for inquiring of this century will have. All into a matter brought before who love the truth will earnestly them as the law binds them hope that his last chapter in to do. Jurors are threatened that history, whether it tells of with ruin if they act other- due confirmation of his guilt or wise than as the mob dictates of a great wrong being righted, at the request of those who may speak of justice. If it does call themselves the army. Re

Re- not, the chapters that follow ligious rancour and infidel may be terrible reading. For truculence join hand in hand the demon of Revolution would against the liberty of the sub- seem to be in the air. ject. The social fabric is shaken to its foundations. And the All the above was written cause of all this is Dreyfus, the before the revelation by the helpless prisoner on the other ‘Figaro' of the evidence led side of the world. He is indeed before the Court of Cassation, the negative ruler of France. except the paragraph which France has a Government and refers to it. The appearance of it has officials, but their work is that evidence made it advisable paralysed and their efficiency to postpone publication until it marred by him. Because of was seen whether there was any him men

are breaking every call for modification of what moral law, and shattering all had been put down. It is

For him the satisfactory to know that not Statute law of the land has a word requires to be cancelled been changed twice, once to or altered in consequence of

social peace.

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these disclosures. Rather, as official telegrams are preserved the reader will have observed, indefinitely, that on applying have some points been for a copy from the Postal phasised in a very marked Department it was at manner. It is not possible supplied, and that it demonto notice all of these, but strates the truth of the stateit is necessary to state that ments made by the Foreign and very

serious de- Office. All this would be painvelopment has taken place ful enough, but this dispute which gives a more than ever has brought another fact to painful aspect to the Affaire. light. The War Office had The surviving officer who was inserted in the secret dossier, put in charge of the accusa as being a copy of the telegram, tion against Dreyfus and the a paper which was not a copy exculpation of Esterhazy now at all, but a fictitious copy, accuses the generals over him made up after the original copy of conduct dishonourable and had been either lost or—as is in defraud of justice, declar more likely —destroyed, a coning that all he did was done by siderable time before. This order. But, worse still, two of made-up copy is so completely the principal departments of unlike the original, and so State—the War Office and the directly contrary to its sense, Foreign Office-have exhibited which is altogether favourable themselves to their country and to Dreyfus, that the Foreign to the world as accusing one Office authorised its

repreanother of the grossest bad sentative to state to the Court faith. The War Office accuses of Cassation that not only was the Foreign Office of having it erroneous to a discreditable altered the reading of a de- extent, but that it must be a ciphered telegram, after having fabrication ! M. Paléologue, of given a particular version of it the Foreign Office, made this to the War Department. The statement in evidence :Foreign Office retorts that this is a calumnious accusation, as “My conscience and my instruccan be proved by obtaining tions compel me to go further, and to

affirm that no error of memory could the original telegram from the justify the divergence between the Ministers of Posts and Tele

two texts [of the telegram]—that regraphs. The War Office re made up by the Ministry of War and plies that, having applied to the that preserved at the Ministry of

It is not only an Post Office Department, the Foreign Affairs.

error, it is a falsification. telegram could not be obtained, “ The document No. 44 is not only such documents not being pre- incorrect, it is false.” served beyond a certain time. To this the Foreign Office Under this accusation the War answers that no such reply Office remains silent. What could have been given, as all next?

WEI-HAI-WEI.

ITS VALUE AS A NAVAL STATION.

ALL the world knows that long as Russia holds that.” The about a year ago Great Britain expression used to justify this became practically mistress of action is our old friend “the Wei-hai-wei. It was then in

It was then in balance of power.” It is a useful the possession of the Japanese, diplomatic expression, and may who had captured it from China, cover much or little. In the as the last act of the drama of present case it would appear to the Chino-Japanese war, and it cover little, and to be of a doubtwas held by them for more than ful and temporary nature. two years, pending the payment No one who has watched of the war indemnity owed them carefully the march of events by China.

The financial ar in the Far East can imagine rangements having been settled, for one moment that the posit was made over to Great session of Wei-hai-wei by the Britain on lease for a term of British as a “secondary naval years, or "for as long as Russia base” will keep Russia out of continues to hold Port Arthur” Peking, if she wants to go there. —a possession which she also Russia can wait. That sums holds on lease from an unwilling up the whole question. We landlord. The terms of both these may adjust the balance for the leases must be regarded as some moment by seizing Wei-haiwhat ponderous diplomatic wei, and by keeping

a squadron jokes. As if there was the of warships in the China seas smallest probability of Russia slightly superior to that of ever leaving Port Arthur !un Russia. But beyond this less some one stronger than her what have we to throw into should drive her out: and give our scale of the balance, her four or five years to con- while Russia is completing her solidate her forces and secure railways and absorbing Manher position, and it will then be churia ? We are about to erect a very large undertaking for a few small batteries on the any combination of Powers to island at Wei-hai-wei: Russia drive her out. The British joke had the guns, ammunition, and is the more humorous but the mountings for the fortification less dignified of the two. There of Port Arthur shipped on seems to be something small board the steamers of her and mean in a great nation volunteer fleet, and some of seizing a slice of territory of a them actually on the China friendly Power 48 pet - oft station, before she seized Port against the picture of another Arthur and Ta-lien-wan. slice by a lower agaimnul pole man wait when it suits her, and unfriendly, and then maling to she ran be prompt when it the world, I shall hole thje ne suite her four months after VOLA (LIT. NOMIE

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