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The Commission was soon followed to Egypt by Col. John H. Finley, of New York, its chief commissioner, who took charge upon his arrival. Colonel Finley made a special trip from Port Said to Cairo to confer with me for a few hours before proceeding later in the day to Palestine. On a subsequent visit I presented Colonel Finley to the High Commissioner, Gen. Sir Reginald Wingate, with whom we discussed at length the purposes of the Commission. Later His Highness the Sultan received Colonel Finley and myself in private audience at his palace in Ramleh.

The Red Cross Commission established an office in Cairo under the charge of Captain Millikin, who has frequently enlisted my intervention in his dealings with the local authorities. I have been able to render considerable assistance to Captain Millikin, not only in his work generally but also in the many perplexing problems that have confronted him. The Agency has also been the intermediary for the transmission of all cablegrams to and from the Commission.

AMERICAN ZIONIST MEDICAL UNIT TO PALESTINE A few days ago there arrived in Egypt the American Zionist Medical Unit to Palestine, a party composed of some 38 members of whom 33 are citizens of the United States. They stopped in Cairo only a brief time on their way to Jerusalem. Mr. Moses Baroway, of Baltimore, Md., secretary attached to the Unit, who remained a few days in Cairo, called on me here at the Agency. He told me that there were 20 nurses and 18 physicians in the Unit headed by Miss Alice Seligsberg. He further stated that the Chairman of the Unit, Mr. E. W. Lewin-Epstein, was ill in London but hoped to proceed to Palestine in the near future. In response to his request I gave Mr. Baroway such data and information about Jerusalem and Ι the situation there as I thought might prove helpful to him and told him to write or telegraph me whenever I could further serve him and the American Zionist Medical Unit.

I have [etc.]


File No. 891.48/30
The Minister in Persia (Caldwell) to the Secretary of State

TEHERAN, December 10, 1917, 9 a. m.

[Received December 14, 2.35 a. m.] Unmitigated famine conditions continue throughout Persia as a result of crop failure and war, many starve daily. Food extremely scarce and prices unbelievable. Local relief inadequate and committees unable to relieve situation.

If American Red Cross or other organizations could assist local authorities and American Presbyterian Mission, such would be desirable and worthy and besides have a good political effect. See my telegram of October 22, 9 a. m.,' and despatch No. 330 of October 4.1


File No. 891.48/30
The Secretary of State to the Minister in Persia (Caldwell)


WASHINGTON, January 10, 1918, 6 p. m. 23. Your December 10, 9 a. m. If American Red Cross undertakes to furnish relief for famine how could relief supplies best be purchased and distributed ?


File No. 891.48/33
The Minister in Persia (Caldwell) to the Secretary of State


TEHERAN, January 22, 1918.

[Received January 23, 12.45 p. m.] Repetition [of my] January 14, 5 p. m. Your cipher telegram January 10, 6 p. m. Relief needs urgent for different cities. Report several deaths daily. Limited amount of wheat, rice, foodstuffs could be purchased throughout the provinces through the Persian Government, which fixes prices. Medical supplies would be most difficult. Importation of foodstuffs and supplies impracticable if not impossible. Prices exorbitant, wheat $15 to $20 per bushel. Distribution could be made through local American missionaries and existing committees. Persian citizens and authorities cooperating but task too great for them alone. One local organization spends $20,000 monthly in Teheran but cares for only 10 per cent of city's needy. Conditions are similar in all the provinces.


File No. 891.48/33
The Secretary of State to the Vice Chairman of the American Red

Cross (Wadsworth)

WASHINGTON, January 25, 1918. SIR: There is herewith enclosed to you a paraphrase of a telegram dated January 22, from the American Minister at Teheran, relative to the famine conditions in Persia.

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Believing that a practical expression of American good will towards Persia, at the present time, would be very beneficial, the Department feels that if the American Red Cross is able to take any steps towards the alleviation of the famine conditions in Persia, such action, under present conditions, would be especially desirable. I am [etc.]

For the Secretary of State:


Assistant Secretary

File No. 891.00/928
The Acting Secretary of State to the Minister in Persia (Caldwell)

WASHINGTON, March 5, 1918, p. m.

ny 29. Your March 1.1 What is status Persian Cossacks referred to? Are they in service of Persian Government or under Russian control? Send detailed report of your information relative to conflict. Does Persian Government approve Turkish treatment of Armenians? It is of great interest to the United States that there should be no conflict between Persians and Armenians and German propaganda undoubtedly aims at producing such conflict. Have you no suggestions as to what can be done in this matter? Call attention of Persian Government to appropriation by American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief for distressed inhabitants of Persia, and also inform Persian Government that American Red Cross has appropriated a relief fund of $200,000 a month for two months, to be divided between distress in Turkey, Caucasus, and Persia. Red Cross states appropriation will probably continue for four additional months.


File No. 891.48/88

The British Ambassador on Special Mission (Reading) to the

Counselor for the Department of State (Polk) No. 311

WASHINGTON, March 22, 1918.

[Received March 25.] DEAR MR. POLK: Doctor MacCallum, late of the Bible House in Constantinople, recently came to this Embassy to unfold a scheme for relief in Persia and enquired what the views of the British authorities would be. He said that the scheme had the unofficial but hearty approval of the State Department.

We accordingly enquired and find that the prospects for the harvest in Persia are good throughout practically the entire country, and whilst this harvest will be gathered in within four months from now, Doctor MacCallum and his party could barely get to work on the spot before that time. Thus his mission would be a fruitless expenditure of energy and money, and he has been informed accordingly.

*Not printed.

I thought you might be interested to know the facts of this matter. I am [etc.]


File No. 891.48/43

The Secrctary of State to the Minister in Persia (Caldwell)


WASHINGTON, April 22, 1918. 44.

Deliver following message to Persian Government and also Crown Prince at Tabriz:

The American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief working under the auspices of the Red Cross has for the past two years and a half sent over $1,880,000 for the relief of Moslems and Christians alike, irrespective of race, creed, or locality. Of the above sum, during the last few months more than $265,000 has been sent to Teheran for distribution to relieve Moslems there and at Meshed and other Persian towns, to purchase food, clothing, and medicines.

American diplomatic agents and American missionaries have distributed our money freely. The disinterested character of the missionaries, their educational, philanthropic work, their medical schools, have been known to Your Royal Highness, and they have had no political motives of any kind.

A cloud we understand has broken whereby some of those who have received our aid are at conflict with each other at Salmas and vicinity. In the name of humanity and for the love of freedom of which your great poets have sung, and for the sake of your great country, we appeal to Your Royal Highness to use your kind and great influence and the forces at your command to make peace among those at conflict irrespective of religion and nationality. May your country be a harbour for the oppressed ones until this bloody war is ended. We are ready for any service that Your Royal Highness may demand for the benefit of your nation and subjects. Signed The American Relief Committee.


File No. 891.48/45
The Secretary of State to the Minister in Persia (Caldwell)


WASHINGTON, May 10, 1918, 6 p. m. 53. Report situation of Jews throughout all Persia.


File No. 891.48/48

The Minister in Persia (Caldwell) to the Secretary of State


TEHERAN, May 13, 1918, 11 a. m.

[Received May 14, 9.44 a. m.] Your telegram 53, May 10, 6 p. m. Needy Jews in Persia estimated thirty to forty thousand of which probably 25 per cent are starving and in dire need.


File No. 891.48/50
The British Chargé (Barclay) to the Assistant Secretary of State

(Phillips) No. 520

WASHINGTON, May 15, 1918.

[Received May 17.] MY DEAR MR. PHILLIPS: With reference to the question of the proposed visit to Persia of Doctor MacCallum's relief expedition, about which discussion has taken place recently, I write to inform you that we have now received a telegram from the Foreign Office to the effect that the British Government agree that the presence of the committee in Persia is calculated to be useful, in connection with the distribution of the sum of money given to Persia by the United States Government for relief purposes.

The Foreign Office express the hope that Doctor MacCallum will consult with Mr. Marling, the British Minister, on his arrival in Persia. Mr. Marling has had long experience in Persia and an intimate knowledge of present Persian politics, and he will of course be glad to assist Doctor MacCallum with the object of securing that the money to be distributed is not misapplied. Believe me [etc.]


File No. 891.48/60a

The Secretary of State to the Minister in Persia (Caldwell)


WASHINGTON, May 29, 1918. 60. Draw on Secretary of State $15,000 deposited by Joint Distribution Committee by method most advantageous to save exchange, consult Committee Bienfaisance Israelite, Teheran, Alliance Israelite, Hamadan, and British Consul, Ispahan, and other leaders, Jewish community especially, and distribute money relieving Jewish

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