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the peace ; and though they hould al- rants was, That every man's house is his semble together at first in a peaceable caflle, in which, under the protection of manner, yet if they afterwards do some the law, he is secure from any infult or deliberate riotous ad, this is a riotous af- abuse whatever ; and yet those people, sembly, and if any, perfon, seeing others who, with the name of Wilkes and Liberty a&ually engaged in a riot, fhall join in their mouths, put to many of their fei. them, and allift them therein, he is as low-fubjects in fear, by attacking their much a rioter as if he bad at first affembled houses, and compelling them to put out with them to that intent, nor shall his lights contrary to their inclinations ; those pretending that he cane innocently into very people, by such violences, their company avail him. Women also guilty of a greater breach of that security may be punished as rioters.
which we claim under the law, than The sheriff and justices of the peace of what was exercised upon Mr Wilkes by any county, or any one of them, having virtue of the general warrants, which are notice of a riot, must endeavour to re- now held in Tuch general abhorrence. move it ; and may call out the power of As I have already shewn the penalties the county, if need be, to suppress it; and incurred by those who have been or may Ahall apprehend the offenders, and put be guilty of any such riots or tumults, lo them in prison till delivered according to I think it may not be improper to inftruet law.
those who may be well disposed to support By the common law rioters are punilhithe laws, and under them to provide for able by fine and imprisonment, or by the their own security, that upon the great pillory. But by the stat. 1° Geo. I. it is principle, That every man's house is his enacted, That if any persons, to the castle, Lord Coke las laid it down to be number of twelve or more, unlawfully positive law, That any man may ule force and riotously allembled against the peace, to defend his own house, and may allemble being required by a justice of the peace, his neighbours and friends to keep it aor any other magistrate, by proclamation gainst those who come to rob or kill in the King's name, to disperse theinselves, bim, or to offer him any violence therein shall nevertheless continue together an contrary to law. And in Easter term, hour afterwards, they all be guilty of in the 39th year of the glorious reign of felony without benefit of clergy: And per- 2. Elisabeth, it was resolved by all the Tons thus allembied, and continuing 10. judges, That not only every justice of gether, are to be apprehended, and car. the peace, sheriff, and other peace-offiried before a justice of the peace; and if cer, but every other subject of the King, in resistance the rioters are killed, the per- may arm themielves to relist riots, rebelfons concerned in it mall be indemnified. lions, or public disturbers of the peace Also by another clause in the same liatute and quiet of the realm : but the judges it is enacted, That if any persons, being there recommended it, as the more dirriotously assembled together, thall demo- crete way, for every one in such cale to lith or pull down, or begin to demolish or attend and be alliitant to the justices, pull down, any house, &c. they firull fuf. Meritfs, or other peace-officers in doing it. fer death as in cases of felony without bene. All these laws are so plain, that they fit of clergy.
require neither explanation por observaHaving stated the heavy .punishment tion to be made on them : I Ihall thereinflicted both by the common and flatute fore conclude, with my sincere wilhes, law on all disurbers of the public peace, that every honest man may, like the and on those who mix or join themselves good Samaritan, consider bimself as a to such riotous assemblies, however inno- neighbour to, and readily go to the arcent their intentions may be, I hope it iftance of, any man he may see in danwill be a caution to every one of his Ma- ger or distress ; and that all the other jesty's liege subjects to follow their leve. magiftrates (taking example from the ral occupations quietly, and not to put worthy gentleman, who, for the honour themselves in hazard of an infamous and of the city, now presides in chief there) premature death, by committing such e. may on any future occasion exert thein. normities as only serve to disgrace ourselves with a spirit becoming their ftae happy conftitution and government. And tions; well knowing that in so doing on this occasion I cannot help observing, they have a right to command the power that the principal foundation of Mr of the county to their aid and allistW-kes's defence against general war. ance : and let all rioters consider into
what a miserable situation they bring in ten years. He also stated the nature themselves; for if, in resisance they are of the subscription, as being only during killed, the persons concerned therein are pleasure ; so that every person might drop indemnified by law; and if they survive, his subscription, whenever he doubted of and are discovered, they are sure of being a proper progress being made, or for any hanged, even for the first offence. other reason, or for no reason at all. But
as a proper progress in so valt a work was Mr URBAN,
April 1768. the great point to be ascertained, in every A Greeably to the encourageinent you year, to the subscribers, the Doctor of
have given me, by inserting my letter fectually secured this point, by chusing to concerning the utility of collatiog ancient print, at the end of every annual account Manuscripts [145.], I now proceed to of his work, the certificate, as to his proJay before the public a more particular gress, which the delegates of the press account of the nature and progress of at Oxford had agreed Mould be produced Dr Kennicott's undertaking.
to them from the Hebrew Professor in that The scheme proposed by him was, to university. compare with some one printed edition, Having premised these necessary matall the manuscripts of the Hebrew Bible ters as to the general plan, I proceed now which are preserved in England, Scotland, to the printed state of this work, in each and I eland; at least all those which of the years that are part; extracting Thould be found worth collating, as be- from each a short account of the progress ing older than the invention of printing. and encouragement; and adding a few The manuscripts of this kind, which, af. out of the many curious articles with ter much inquiry, were discovered by Dr which these annual states abound. The Kennicott in our own country, at the first state was printed at the end of the end of the first year, (1760), amounted first year 1760; but of that state I have to rio. There, therefore, were to be no copy : however, I have been told, collated; but in a manner very different that it related chiefly to the nature of from the collation of other manuscripts. such a work, and the expediency of its For as the mistake of one single letter being undertaken; together with an acmight make a great difference in the count of the Doctor's having collated meaning of an Hebrew word; and once part of two very ancient MSS which bemany fingle letters might be mistaken, long to the Bodley library. I apprehend, if the collation was to be made by pro- likewise, that a list of subscribers for nouncing whole words; it was necessary, this first year was printed on a separate in this case, to pronounce and compare paper; and that the money sublcribed every single letter. And the method fixe was near 500 1. ed upon was, for one person to read the At the end of the second year, 1761, printed copy letter after letter, while an- an account both of the progress, and of other person, at the same time, inspect the subscription, was printed in a little ed the MS, and wrote down every varia. pamphlet, as has been done annually ever tion, whether of whole words, or of let. lince. In this account we see an amazing ters only.
field opening, in consequence of the Laborious and almost impraticable as Doctor's inquiries, and a correspondence it must appear, in general, to go through which he began with the learned in vawith so very minute an examination of rious parts of Europe ; particularly at 110 MSS of fo large a book as the He. Rome, where Cardinal Paffioni, then at brew Bible; yet was this work underta. the head of the Vatican, offered him the ken upon a plan still more extensive, use of all the Hebrew MSS in that fanamely, to procure, in the mean while, mous library: the Cardinals Spinelli and collations of as many of the best foreign Albani, likewise, are mentioned as very MSS as the subscription would allow, and zealous advocates for this work. The as could be collated withio that time chief places abroad, where collations were which might be taken up in examining already begun, or inquiries were making the MSS in our own country. And, be- after MSS of the Hebrew Bible, were cause many persons might be prevented . Rome, Florence, Turin, Spain, Paris, from fubscribing to this work, from a no. Holland, and Hamburg; and the other tion that it would be endless, Dr Kenni. places were Constantinople, Warsaw, cott thought it proper to assure the pu- Venice, Naples, Bologna, Mantua, Pablic, that he believed it would be finished via, Genoa, Lisbon, Geneva, Utrecht,
Erfurth, Erfurth, Berlin, and Stockholm. At the undertake a work of such infinite fatigue ; end of this second year, the number of he must now be equally surprised, that manuscripts discovered at home was in- so many public-spirited men could be creased from 110 to 119; of which ten found to patronize the undertaking : so were now collated by the Doctor bimself, that the patronage, as well as the work, allisted by three, and sometimes four was quite beyond example. gentlemen.
As to the third year, 1762, I may be The Oxford delegates having thought shorter; because some articles, having proper, that (for the greater security been already enlarged upon, reed onl. from fire, &c.) transcripts of the colla- be just mentioned. The number of M55 tions Whould be deposited in the Bodleian now discovered at home was 121. And library; trarscripts of the collation of at home were in this year collated two these ten MSS were now placed there, Mss, sent froin Rotterdam; and also under the Doctor's ow'n real and that of nine large volumes, lent to the Doctor at the librarian. In this year's state we Oxford, by the university of Cambridge: have the following concise, but very in. and for these collations he had five or six teresting account, of the nature and tend- alliitants. Abroad, several ancient and ency of this work.
valuable MSS were now under examina. " The expediency of such an underta- tion; at Rome, Turin, Florence, Zurich, king must be evident to all those who will Hamburg, Berlin, and Paris. The subattend to the following particulars : scription was nearly the saine as the year That the design of it is, to do the same before; about 900 l. The Profesor's justice to the text of the Old Testament, certificate was (after its introduction) in which has been done, with univerlal ap: the following words :-“I do hereby acplause, to the text of the New Telia cordingly certify, for the satisfaction of ment, and to that of almost all other an• the said delegates, and of such other percient writings; - that the Hebrew text, fons as have encouraged this work by though of such great importance, has their subscriptions, That the several parts been hitherto printed agreeably to the la- of the collation (made during the third teft and worst MSS; -- that there are as year) bave been laid before me. And my yet happily preserved multitudes of older opinion is, that Dr Kennicott hath made MSS; free from many of those later cor
a very conpetent progress in the laid colruptions, which disgrace that extensive lation; and indeed advanced farther in part of divine revelation; and MSS wbich it than could bave been reasonably excontain readings more agreeable to pected. And, upon considering several the contexi, to the ancient versiosis, and of the various readings which he has alalso to the New Testament; - and there ready discovered in the Hebrew MSS, I fore that it pust be exceedingly desireable, think this work will be of very considerthat as many as posible of the various able service to sacred literature." readings in these valuable MSS (now pe- The only article I shall add here is, silbing by age) be speedily collected, and that among many other honours done to afterwards accurately published together this work, this year's state menijous one, (at the bottoni of every page, in a new which no other work relating to the Biedition of the present Hebrew text) for ble could ever boast of fince the reformathe information of the learned, and the tion; namely, its being warmly recombenefit of the public.”
mended both by Ronie and Geneva. And The state for this second year concludes as nothing can be more curious, or more with the certificate froin Dr Hunt, the pleasing, to every man of a liberal and Royal Professor of Hebrew; and with a comprehensive mind, than to see the list of the following subscribers:- The proofs of this singularly joint recommenKing (200 l. per ann.); the Universities of dation, I Mall close the present extract Oxford, Cambridge, and Dublin; the with the two certificates. Archbishops of Canterbury, York, and Ca.
The Certificate from ROME. Thel; with twenty Bishops, English and I. rish; eleven Lay Lords; seven Deans; nine qui doit de faire à Oxford sur tous les Manu
L'enterprise d'une nouvelle edition de la Bible, Deans and Chapters; eight Colleges; and Jerits Hebraiques, qui peuvent se trouver dans one hundred and ten other subscribers; les plus célébres Biblioteques, a trouvée ici auamounting in the whole to 905 1. If then tant d'approbateurs, que de personnes qui en ont the reader was before surpriled, that any entendu parler. Et pour favoriser les Auteurs man could be sourd, hardy enough to d'une si important cuvrage, j'ai permis avec
plaisir la collation des anciens Manuscrits He- and between these two burning islands,
D. Card. PASSION EI, was preceded by a slight earthquake, oc-
casioned, no doubt, by the inotion of The Certificate from GENEVA. that enonpous mass of matter, which Extrait des regitres de la Vénérable Compagnie
was beginning to break off from the botdes Pafteurs et des Profescurs de l'Eglise de tom, and gradually to ascend towards
the surface of the water Geneve.
Some mari. Du Vendredi, 4. Decembre, 1761.
ners, perceiving from the shore someMonf. le Reiteur et Mers les Bibliothécaires thing which seemed to fost, upon the sea, ent raporté, qu'on leur a fait part d'un projet imagined it might be part of a wreck formé en Angleterre, pour la collation des Mia- and went towards it in their boats : but nafcrits Hébreux de l'Ancien Teftament, & qu'on finding that it consisted of a large mass of leur a demandé la communication de ceux que nous rock and earth, which were visibly rising pourions avoir dans notre Bibliothéque ; qu'il par higher, they were terrified, and returned to reit par un Imprimé Latin, que le principal exéd Santorin with all speed, where they cuteur de ce projet est Mons. Benjamin Kennicott, spread a general confternation by their Maitre des Arts à Oxford; projet, pour l'exécution du quel on se propose declaircir à bien des report. - At length some of the inhabi
tants, who had more courage and curio. égards le Texte Sacré, et d'en aplanir des diffi. fity.than the rest, relolved to examine in. cultez ; que pour parvenir à ce but l' Autheur to the affair themlelves. Accordingly avoit déja pris des mesures pour pouiser dans les
and seeavoit des assurances qu'elles lui feroient' ouvertes. ing no danger, they landed upon it. In Sur qusi opiné, la Ven. Compagnie a reconnu un
going from one rock to another, they animement toute l'utilité, qui peut resulter de observed the ground every where covered l'exécution de ce projet, et combien il importe de with white stones, as easily to be broken faire par raport aux livres de l'Ancien Testament as bread, and very much like it. They ce qu'on a déja fait avec succez à regard de found likewise a large number of fresh ceux du Nouveau. Elle n'a pu qu'aplaudir aux oysters sticking to it ; with which they louables intentions de l' Autheur, et de ceux qui were going to fill their vessels ; but pers'interessent à la perfeflion d'un ouvrage, dont ceiving the rocks move, and rise under on a lieu d'esperer de grands avantages pour une their feet, they were alarmed, and implus parfaite intelligence des Livres Sacrez, b mediately made off in their boats. This par cela même pour la Religion ; et elle est per. Shaking was occafioned by the rising of suadée que cette entreprise, qui fait beaucoup d' 'honneur au zéle de son autheur, fera généralement ed above twenty feet in height and forty
the island, which in a few days had gainaprouvée. En conséquence Meļrs les Bibliothé- feet in breadth ; so that by the begincaires ont éte chargez de communiquer ce qu'il porno ning of June it stood upward of thirty roit y avoir dans notre Bibliothéque de relatif à feet above the surface of the sea, and cet objet. Du Vendredi, xi. Decembre, 1761.
might be five hundred paces round. But Menf. le Refleur a demandé la permission de la the five or fix following days, its increase communiquer copie de le delibération ci-dessus à being almost imperceptible, it was ima. Milord Mount Stuart, qui l'a desiré. Accordé. gined it would rise no higher. The pert BUISSON, Secretaire. that now appeared, was round, and con
fisted of a white earth, from whence History of a new Ipand which rose out of they gave it the name of the White Island. the sea, near Isle Santorin, in the Ar.
The different motions of the island, chepelago, in 1707.
and the rocks that were detached from THE illand Santorin was known to it, which fometimes rose above the sea
the ancients by the name of Thera, and sometimes sunk down again, often or Theramena ; and was famous for its changed the colour of the water. For gulf, in which there appeared, 200 vears some hours it appeared green, then yel. before Christ, an island, now called the low or reddish, according to the differGreat Cameni, or the Great Burning Isand. ent minerals which came from the bot. It is called great, because in the year tom of this abyss. Sulphur was the most 1573 another role out of the same gulf prevalent : and for twenty miles round, less than the former. It was in this gulf, the waters were tinged with it. The VOL. XXX.
boiling of the waves about this new flying in the air. From the largest island was very extraordinary; and an mouth of the volcano isTued mountains of excellive heat was felt as one came near smoke, mixed with alhes, which, being it. All the sides were covered with dead driven by the wind, covered all the fill, which were driven ashore by the neighbouring parts. Some of the alhes dashing of the waves ; and the air was were carried as far as the isle of Anifi, tainted with an abominable stench, wbich eight leagues from Santorin ; and a reached as far as Santorin.
Tower of smaller stones, all on fire, fallThe whole month of June and half ing upon the lesser Cameni, formed a July, things remained nearly in the same fcene, which on a less dreadful occasion Itate ; but on July 16. there was a new would have been very pleasing. Every phenomenon more terrible than any of day presented something new. After the the former. Towards sunset was leen, ulual uproar, there was one while the sixty paces from the White Iand, a co- appearance of rockets issuing from the lumn, consisting of eighteen black rocks, large opening, and at other times leaves which rose out of a part of the gulf of fire, which, after mounting to a great which was so deep that it could never yet height, fell down again in fars upon the be fathomed. These eighteen rocks, While Iand, which was quite illuminawbich at first appeared a little dillance ted with them. from each other, being united, formed Till January 1708, the volcano conti, a second island, which is called the Black nued its eruptions leveral times in a day. Island, and which soon after was joined February 10. the fire, the smoke, the to the White Ille.
subterraneous noites, the boiling of the Hitherto neither fire nor smoke had fa, and the whirling of hot hones bebeen seen. But on the appearance of came ftill more dreadful than ever ; and these eighteen rocks, clouds of smoke increaled by the 15th of April to such a mixed with fire begun to rise ; which degree, that it was imagined the new however were only seen hy night; but island must have been quite blown up, at the same time horrible noises were But after that, the claps of thunder beheard, accompanied with subterraneous came less terrible, the waters more calm, thunders, which seemed to come from and the stench was scarce perceived ; the center of the island. It was obser- though the smoke ftill grew thicker, the ved, that from the White INand proceed. Tower of alhes still continued to fall, ed neither fire nor finoke; but the Black and the illand still increased towards the Me continued to throw them out with fo fouth. much violerice, that they were seen as On the 15th of July fome ecclesiastics far off as Candia, which is thirty-two ventured near a part of the isand where Jeaques from Santorin.
there was no fire or smoke, with an in. The fire increased as the Black Mand tention of landing. But when they rose higher, and as the breaches in it came within 200 paces, they observed gaie it more vent. The sea became the water grew liotter as they advanced, more agitated; the boiling of the waters They founded, but could find no bottom, more violent; and the air, which every though their line was 95 fathom. While day grew more noisome, joined with the they were deliberating what they should smoke which the ifiand ihrew out, al. do,' they discovered that the caulking of most took a way their breath at Santorin, their bark melted ; upon which they ima and absolutely destroyed all their vine• mediately haftened away to Santorin. yards.
They were no sooner returned, than the In the night from the ist to the 2d of large mouth of the volcano began its oAugust a noise was heard like the dif- fual eruptions, and threw out a quantity charge of cannon, and at the same time of large fiery stones, which fell on the two sheets of flame burst out from one of place they had just left. Measuring this the mouths of the Black INand, which new island , which they did from the Lara were extinguished in the air. The fol- ger Cameni, they found it 200 feet high, lowing days the noise increased, and re- 100 broad, and 5000 round. sembled the most dreadful claps of thun. In 1710 it burnt again, and torrents der; so that the doors and windows in of fire and smoke issued out from it, and Santorin were, for the most part, either the sea bojled up all round. - In 1712 broke, or very much saken. Red hot the island was near three leagues round. fones of an enormous size were then feen But neither any motion nor increase was