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That they are of opinion, that the great success of Meff. Suttons is to be

SIR,

London, Fan. 1768. attributed to the advantages arilling from THE national debt is now computed the exposition to colder air, from a to be about one hundred and fortyjudicious treatment, and the due obser- five millions of pounds Sterling. Many vance of some other rules, which have people know this, and it is often menvsually been followed in this country be- tioned in conversation; but I believe few fore ; and not to any peculiar nostrum, have formed an idea of the bulk of such a or specific remedy.

sum, that is in any degree adequate to it. That they have no doubt, but that A man may talk of a thousand pounds (if the method of inoculation practised in he has often seen it in calb) with some England with such universal success, idea of the space it takes up : but when would be as successful at Vienna, provi. he comes to talk of sums he has nevir ded the inoculation was performed with seen, as for instance, of millions, the the same skill and prudence, and the pa- image grows indistinct, and there is very tients were equally submillive to the rules little difference between the idea of a directed.

million, and that of ten millions, an In answer to Sir John Pringle's letter, hundred, or a thousand millions. I make they beg leave to observe, ibat on the no doubt therefore that there are people, whole body of a patient inoculated by Sut. who, if they were asked the question, top, though it will very frequently bappen would tell you they conceived that the that the number of pustules will not be national debt in cash might be contained more than a dozen, yet sometimes, in a very large chest; others, who would rhough very rarely, they will greatly ex• laugh at that idea, might conceive that ieed two liundred.

it would scarce exceed forty or fifty wagThey are not able to ascertain 'the gon loads. Few would imagine that such number that he bas inoculated, but be a line of waggons, reaching from the Exlieve he has not been always successful, cbange to Highgate, with a tun weight though he has failed so very seldom, that in each, would not contain it; and fewthey do not think that it ought to be er stiil, that such a line, extending to considered as an objection to his method. St Alban's, would still be insufficient.

Sir Jolin Pringle mentions, that when And yet I think as much money as such Sutton is called to people in the natural a line of waggons would carry has been small pox, who are in danger, and at the given by the C-sof E-d in one heighi, the first thing that he does to re- in, and looked upon as a thing so lieve them is, to expose them to the open much of course, and of fo fmall importe air, to carry them into it if it be possible, ance, as to be done in a very thin hand this even in the winter; and if they where the could hardly muster half are not in a condition to be removed, he a dozen mrs to attend him with the orders all the windows and bed-curtains grant to the the. to be thrown open. They apprehend In order to help my own conceptions zhis practice has been found unsuccesful, in this matter, I have made the calcula.

The Suttons are undoubiedly in some tion following, which, if you please, you respects improvers in the art of inocula. may communicate to the public. tion, but by asplying their rules too ge- To avoid fractions, I luppose a troy nerally, and by their not making a pro. ounce of liver worth but five millings. rer allowance for the difference of con. Twelve ounces make one pound troy 1titutions, have frequently done harm. weight, which pound troy weight is then All their improvements have been adopt worth three pounds Sterling money. ed by other inoculators, and in the hands Taking then one third of the number of these the art seems to be carried 10 a of pounds Sterling contained in our na: very great perfeâion.

tional debt, we have the number of pounds

of silver in troy weight, 48,333,333 lb. WM DUNCAN, Plusicians to These reduced to avoirdupois weight, CL. WINTRINGHAY,

the King. by the ingenius Mr Ferguton's table, make R. WARREN,

39,771,427 lb. of silver in avoirdupois. J. RANAI, C. HAWKINS,

Surgeons to

Allowing one tun, or 20 hundred pounds the King.

weight avoirdupois, to be a proper tra• D. MIDLETON.

velling load for a waggon with four hor

ses,

ses, it would require nineteen thousand led to the view of King, Lords, and eight hundred eighty-fix waggons of four Commons, I fancy the united voice would hories each to travel with that sum; be, “O, 'tis too much : give the and the number of horses would be le- one half of it." venty-nine thousand five hundred and But as this method of demonstration forty-four.

(during the present scarcity of hard moFarther, if we allow to each waggon ney) cannot well be taken, I willi, howin the line a length of eighteen yards to ever, that the acute Mr Almon, in his mose in (and the allowance cannot well next edition of the Red Book, would disbe less to keep the nose of the fore horse tinctly, against the names of placemen, from being hurt by the tail of the prece• give us an account of their salaries and ding waggon), I say, then, that at 1760 perquisites, computed in pecks, bushels, yarg's the mile, this train of waggons and waggon-loads of Glver. Such an acwould reach two hundred and three miles; count, I believe, would make us all stare, that is, from London to York, and far- and some of us, perhaps, alhamed. And ther.

who knows but some future patriot, aA merchant of note being once reproach- Jarmed by so striking a demonstration of ed with the debts he owed, replied, “ Yes, our prodigality, may undertake (on conSir, I owe more than you are worth; and dition of being well paid himself) to you cannot be trusted for half the mo. think of ways and means to remedy the ney." This perhaps we might say to evil.

An ÆCONOMIST. fome of our neighbours : and I would have our countrymen reflect, by way of SIR, Edinburgh, fan. 1768. confolation, that if they are much in debt , it is a fign they are much in credit

, A Mong the many useful letters which

come abroad, none has ever yet apupon which I congratulate them. peared, so far as I have seen, that has

But in the mean time I hope this idea proposed a remedy for the clamant cale of the largeness of our debt will tend to of the poor : and to prevent, if posible, make us a little more careful how we their being brought into such pinching increase it, and put us upon seriously en, ftraits for future, it were greatly to be deavouring to diminish it; that the in- wilhed, that some able pen (now that valuable credit we at present have in the the parliament has under their consideraworld may be always maintained as a tion the high prices of all forts of provifure source of strength in time of need. fions) would digest some such method as

Perhaps you may alk me, how we can the following, which might prove effecdiminish it faster than we do?

tual to ascertain the prices of all sorts of There is a story that one of our kings grain, cattle, butter, cheese, &c. having ordered five hundred pounds to Suppose there are in G. Britain 12 milfoine person for a trivial service, his trea- lions of people, or upwards : allow to forer thought the reward too great, and each person for eating, and drinking, 4 to convince him of it, spread the fum in bolls per ann. ; this will amount to 48 Silver on a table near which bis master millions of bolls of the different grains of was to pass. “Pray” (lays the King) wheat, barely, oats, and peale. If the "what is all this money for ?”—“It is” legislature would be pleased to tax the (replied the treasurer) “ the sum your buyer of each of the above grains, with Majesty has ordered to such a one for one halfpenny per boll, which none would such a service.”—“O” (says he) "'tis ever grudge, this wonld produce a fum too much : give the knave one half of it. of 100,000 1. Sterling. Let them also

If by this honest artifice of the treasu- appoint 1200 or 1500 skiltul upright men, rer's, the public too could be made to see, to travel through the different counties the sums they give, I imagine they might of the kingdom, during the :ime of har. be induced to give with more modera, velt, and to calculate the produce of the tia. Suppose, for instance, that the above grains, allowing to each county services to the state yearly performed by iwelve, fifteen, or inore, if requisite, matt of the great officers happily inrolled where the counties are large, and ten or in the Red Book of life, were to be fewer, where they are small. They may loudly proclaimed in Westminster-hall, easily finish their account during the hare and at the same time the suins in cafli vest-quarter, and return the whole awhich they receive for those services, were mouni of grains to whomever the leto be placed in heaps on the floor, expo- gillature Hall appoint. The above gen

tlen en

tlemen to have each a salary of 60 l. per annum, out of the above 100,000 1. An essay to find the distance from the 'which salaries, if 1500 be employed, will

FIRST MERIDIAN. amount to 90,cool. the furplus to be ap- LET it be granted that a table may plied to the clerks of the different parish- be formed, containing the right aes, where the farmers refide, for keep- scension of every meridian that will be ing a regilter of the number of each farin- in the zenith, or mid-beaven, of any one er's family, fervants included, who should place, for every mid-day, every hour, annually give in the number of his fami- every minute, and every second of time, ly to the clerk-register, attested by a ju- for any desired time to come. fice of the peace, or another proper ma- Let the mariner be provided with such giftrate, and after deducting the landlord's a table. rent, allowing a moderate computing for Let him likewise be provided with aneach of the family's fubfiftence, a mode- other table, containing the right ascenTate fum for the farmer's labour, cloath- fion of all such fixed itars as are easily irig himself, his wife and children, (if a- observable by the naked eye. ny); the price of the remainder of his Being thus provided, every sailor may grain may then be easily ascertained : know at once his latitude, and what meProvided likewise, that he make oath be- ridian passes through his Zenith, every fore a judge competent, that he has sold time he observes the culmination of any none of his crop, or exchanged it for any well-known ftar, elevated at least 35 degoods directly or indirectly. This done grees above his horizon. Or he may know for seven years, the medium may ascer. the right ascension of any meridian passing tain the price for twenty years afterwards, through his zenith, by observing, with a (except when visited for our sins with a line and plummet, when the line cuts afamine from heaven): or else the inspec- ny two stars, which have the same right tion of the above gentlemen to continue ascenfion, and elevated as above. for ever hereafter; and that when there It is certain, that the longitude fought is a call for exportation according to law, must be the distance in degrees, minutes, the price of grain in Britain never to ex- &c. between the times of the observed ceed the mediuin, or that ascertained stars being in the meridian of the two from the inspectors amount.

places. And as every fized star's right The graling farms may be inspected and ascension is invariably the same, wherefurveyed likewise be able skilful hands, in ever it may be seen, the longitude fought order to ascertain the value of cattle, must be the distance in degrees, minvies, Theep, and their produce. - I am, &c. &c. between the observed star's place,

PHILO-PAUPER. when in the meridian of the observer, and Extrait of a letter from Mr John Wright, that time, when

it shall be, or has been, in

the time and right of aloension affixed to collector of seeds, and gardener at Quebec, the mid heaven of London (for instance.) to the clerk of the society for inporting But one of the tables gives the right aforeign feeds. [xxviii. 614.]

scension of the observed star ; the other Quebec, Sept. 1767. table gives the tjine of its coming on the I

Have the pleasure to inform you, that mid-heaven of London, and the right af

I have already fome bushels of the cenfion affixed to that time, for that day. feeds of four new species of plane trees, The distance between these times, gives which are the most beautiful trees I have the longitude fought, in degrees, miseen in the southern parts of Canada. I nutes, &c. which degrees, minutes, &c. have also the feeds of two new species of converted into time, gives the time when elm, which grow in the wet ground, vp. the observation was inade. wards of 100 feet high. The introduction By this means, all that the observer of these will, I hope, prove beneficial to has to do, is, to be as sure as he can, my native country.

that he has the observed star, in his midIt is needless to mention to you the heaven, at the time of making his obfer. hardlhips, during some long journeys I vation. He has the knowledge of every have undergone these last three months thing else, which he wants to know, in the interior deserts of Canada; they from his tables. were beyond expression. I had almost

GWPEAC MEKEOS. forgot to tell you, that I have found a spe.

MWMOTCAC ARITH MOS. cies of iron wood (tideroxylon), the finen

Si quid noviji rectius iftis, wood perhaps in the world.

Candidus imperti; si 1:01, his utere mecum.

The

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The Dades never rise but when the winds them; and they can only be changed by

ble; before we attempt to act against blow.

Prov.

reason and persuasion. But if public bu-
SIR,

Jan. 1768. siness can be carried on without thwart-
AE
S the cause of the present ill humour ing those opinions ; if they can be, on

in America, and of the resolutions the contrary, made sublervient to it;
taken there to purchase less of our ma. they are not unnecesarily to be thwart-
nufaâures (xxix. 691.), does not seem to ed, how absurd loever such popular opi-
be generally understood, it may afford nions may be in their natures. - This
fonje fatisfaction to your readers, if you had been the wisdom of our government
give them the following thort historical with respect to raising Toney in the co-
State of facts.

lonies. It was well known, that the co. -From the time that the colonies were Jonilts universally were of opinion, That first considered as capable of granting aids no money could be levied from English to the crown, down to the end of the last subjects, but by their own consent, given war, it is said, that the constant mode of by themselves, or their chosen represena obtaining those aids was by requisition tatives: That therefore, whatever momade from the crown through its govern- ney was to be raised from the people in ors to the several assemblies, in circular the colonies, mult first be granted by letters from the secretary of Nate in his their assemblies, as the nioney raised in Majesty's name, setting forth the occa. Britain is first to be granted by the house fion, requiring them to take the matter of Ciminons: That this right of grantinto confideration, and exprelling a re. ing their own money, was essential to liance on their prudence, duty, and af. Engli liberiy: and, That if any man, fe&tion to his Mejesty's government, that or body of inen, in which they had no they would grant such sums, or raise (uch representative of their chusing, could tax numbers of men as were suitable to their them at pleasure, they could not be said refpe&ive circunstances.

to have any property, any thing they
The colonies being accustomed to this could call their own. But as these opi-
method, have from time to time granted nions did not hinder their granting mo-
money to the crowit, or raised troops for ney voluntarily and amply whenever the
its service, in proportion to their abili- crown, by its servants, came into their
ties; and, during all the last war, be assemblies, (as it does into its parlia-
yond their abilities; fo that considerable inents of Britain or Ireland), and dem
fums were relurned them yearly by par: manded aids; therefore that method was
lament, as they had exceeded their pro. chosen, rather than the hateful one of ar,
portion.

bitrary taxes.
Had this happy method of requisition I do undertake here to support these o-
been continued, (a method that left the pinions of the Americans ; they have
King's subjècts in those remote countries been refuted by a late act of parliament,
the pleature of lowing their zeal and declaring its own power; — which very
loyaliy, and of imagining that they recom- parliament, however, hewed wisely fo
mended themselves to their sovereign by much tender regard to those inveterate
the liberality of their voluntary grants), prejudices, as to repeal a tax that had
there is no doubt, but all the money that inilitated against them [xxviii. 118.]. And.
could reasonably be expeded to be raised those prejudices are îtill ro fixed and
from them in any manner, might have rooted in the Ainericans, that it has been
been obtained without the lealt heartsupposed, not a single man among them
burning, offence, or breach of the har.' has been convinced of his error, even by
mody of affe&ions and interests that fo that act of parliament.
long rubifted between the two countries. The perfon, ther, who first projeded

It has been thought wisdom in a go. 10 lav alide the accustomed method of re.
Ferment exercising sovereignty over dif. quifition, and to raise money on America
ferent kinds of people, to have some re- by stamps, seems not to have acted wisely,
gard to prevailing and established opi- in deviating from that method which the
nions ainong the people to be governed, colonists looked upon as constitucional,
where-ever such opinions might in their and thwarting unneceßarily the fixed pre-
effe&is obftrue or promote public mea- judices of fo great a number of the King's
fures. If they tend to obstruct public subjects. - It was not, however, for want
service, they are to be changed, if posli. of knowledge, that what he was about to
VOL. XXX

D

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do would give them great offence: he ap- ing in rebellion, and against those who pears to have been very sensible of this, had been for the repeal of the stampand apprehensive that it might occasion act, as having thereby been encouragers fome disorders ; to prevent or fuppress of this supposed rebellion, that it was whicl, he projected another bill, that thought necessary to inforce the quartertas brought in the same lession with the ing.act by another act of parliament, tastamp-act, whereby it was to be made king away from the province of New Jawful for military officers in the colo• York, which had been the most explicit nies to quarter their soldiers in private in its refusal, all the powers of legillahouses. This seemed intended to awe tion, till it should have complied with the people into a compliance with the o- that act [xxix. 323.). The news of which ther act. Great opposition, however, greatly alarmed the people every where being raised here against the bill, by the in America, as (it has been said) the lanagents from the colonies, and the mer• guàge of such an act seemed to thein to chants trading thither; the colonists de- be, Obey implicitly laws made by the claring, that under such a power in the parliament of Great Britain to raise moariny, no one could look on his house as ney on you without your consent, or you bis own, or think he had a home, when shall enjoy no riglits or privileges at all. soldiers might be thrust into it, and mix. At the same time a person lately in ed with his family, at the pleasure of an high office, projected the levying more officer; that part of the bill was dropt. money from America, by new duties on

But there still remained a clause, when various articles of our own manufacture, it pafled into a law, to oblige the several as glass, paper, painters colours, &c. affemblies to provide quarters for the fol. appointing a new board of onions, and diers, furnilbing them with firing, bedding, sending over a set of commiflioners with candles, small beer, or rum, and fundry o. large salaries to be established at Bolton, ther articles, at the expence of the several who were to have the care of collecting provinces. And this aci continued in force thole duties ; which were by the act exe when the stamp-act was repealed; tho', if pressly mentioned to be intended for the obligatory on the allemblies, it equally mi• payment of the salaries of governors, jud. litated against the American principle a- ges, and other officers of the crown in Above mentioned, That money is not to be rerica; it being a pretty general opinion raised on English subjects without their con- here, that those officers ought not to desent.

pend on the people there for any part of The colonies nevertheless being put their lupport. into high good humour by the repeal of It is not my intention to combat this the stamp-act, chose to avoid a fresh dis- opinion; but perhaps it may be fome lapote upon the other, it being temporary, tisfaction to your readers to know what and soon to expire, never, as they hoped, ideas the Americans have on the subject. to revive again ; and, in the mean time, They say then, as to governors, That they, by various ways in different colo: they are not like princes, whose posterity nies, provided for the quartering of the have an inheritance in the government of troops, either by acts of their own aseme a nation, and therefore an interest in its blies, without taking notice of the a- prosperity; they are generally strangers of -t, or by some variety or small io the provinces they are sent to govern, diminution, as of salt and vinegar, in the have no estate, natural connection, or supplies required by the act, ihat what relation there, to give them an affection they did might appear a voluntary act of for the country; that they come only their own, and not done in obedience to to make money as fast as they can ; are an a- of p- --t, which, according to sometimes men of vicious characters and their ideas of their rights, they thought broken fortunes, sent by a miniller merehard to obey.

ly to get them out of the way ; that as It might have been well if the matter thev intend staying in the country no had thus passed without notice; but a longer than their government continues, 6-having written home an angry and purpose to leave no family behind and aggravating letter upon this conduct them, they are apt to be regardless of in the aflembly of his province, the out. the good will of the people, and care not ed per of the Namp-act, and his what is thought or laid of them after they adherents, then in the opposition, raised are gone : Their situation at the same such a clamour against America, as be• time gives them many opportunities of

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