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lified to come into the service. What. but are also encouraged to bear the inever seeming self-interest may be implied conveniencies of their station by the unin the tenor of this memorial, we pre. bounded gradations to eminence which fume that a deliberate and unprejudiced itand before them; but the surgeon attention will find it really calculated for hath no hopes to keep expe&ation alive, promoting the good of his Majesty's ser no circumstance of rank or honour to io vice, and will also be conducive to the spire his zeal, animate his industry, or (stisfaction your Lordships most receive, compensate for the time, labour, and from committing to the care of men of pro- expence, that is required to qualify him per capacity fo valuable a set of people as in his profession ; his little gain is uncereunstitute the Britili navy, especially tain in its duration, and he is himself, when that care will also reduce that great after long and painful service, deftitute lofs which the government must sustain of support from that government to which from the want of proper medical judge- he has been so faithfully and absolutely dement and advice.

voted. Therefore we, the memorialists, flat. The surgeons therefore of his Majesty's ter ourselves your Lordships will be in- navy, from a due regard of the honour terefted to conlider, that whill the same and advantage of the service in whichi class of men throughout the army are they are engaged, for the health and lives encouraged and rewarded with half.pay, of those most valuable fubjects committed that wbilft other ranks of officers in the 10 their care, for the interest of them. pavy enjoy the same without reftri&tion felves, their families, and society in geof servitude, the surgeons should be dis. necal, hope that your Lordships will pa: tinguished as obje&s destitute of this aid tronize this memorial, and recommend and resource :

such encouragement as you Mall think ne. A body of men who not only share, in cessary and just. common with other officers, the fatigues The following account of seamen taand hazards of the sea, of climates, and ken into the service last war was given to of war, but even incur the farther dan- the house of Commons by the admiralty gers of infection, to which their profes. at the conclufion of last war, and may son renders them peculiarly exposed, and serve as a proof of what is advanced a. in the exercise of which they have been bove. so often known to fall a sacrifice.

To killed in engagements

1,513 They likewise beg lea to observe, that of the number of surgeons of which

Dead of diseases and miling 133,708

Remaining the body confifts, very few can be found,

49,673 with the most frugal economy, that have

184,893 acquired in the service sufficient even to be esteemed a decent competence for

Proposal to prevent the scurvy at sea. themselves, much less a family ; by much

By Dr Nath. Hulme. the greatest part are indigent; and on a I

Would humbly propose, that one ounce restoration of peace, whilft every other

and an balf of the juice of oranges officer can either be employed at sea, or or lemons, and two ounces of sugar, be has his resource of half-pay, the surgeons daily allowed to each man in bis Majesty's must be left alone to lament their inca- navy; to be mixed with his allowance pacity to live.

of spirit and water, commonly, called Their state and condition is such, that grog. And I would further advise, that being early and constantly separated froin ihe laid liquor be so far diluted with waall connections alhore, which afford a ter, as that the whole allowance to each comfortable fubfiftence for themselves and man may be equal to three pints; and families, they become from their attend. ferved out to him, regularly, three times ance on the navy deprived of the usual a-day; that is to say, one pint at eight opportunities by which they migiit other in the mornisg, another at twelve o'clock, wise have availed themselves with suc. and the third at four or fix in the aftercess.

noon; so that it may become, as it were, They also conceive, that as their pro. the common drink of sailors at fea, like speas are so narrowly circumscribed, fo smell beer; and that they may be rarely, paghit they proportionally to benefit in or never, necessitaied to drink water 2the limited sphere in which they act : lone: this in. cold climates, or in tem

That lieutenants have not only retaining perátę ones in line winter-time, gratuities from the moment they engage,

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But in all hot climates, and in the Over the broadest part of the boat is heat of summer in temperate ones, a erected a pavilion, the canopy of which greater quantity, of drink is required; is fix feet bigh, and covered with crimand then the liquor fhould be so far di. son velvet, very riehly embroidered with luted with water, as that each man may gold, as are likewise the curtains, wbich have four pints a day; namely, one at hang from it on every side, the whole eight in the morning, two at twelve being supported by several varnished pil: o'clock, and one at four or fix in the af. lars, the bottom of which is surrounded tervoon.

by a fmall rail. A narrow balcony bangIn those countries where wine is allow. ing over the lides of the boat, ferves as ed the ship's company instead of fpirits, I a receptable for confe&ionary, fruit, Mer. would advise the same quantity of the bert, or other refreshments on the paf. juice and sugar to be mixt therewith as sage. The floor of the pavilion is covere is direded for the grog; and to be so fared with fine scarlet cloth, upon which are diluted with water, as that it may be feveral crimson velvet cu:hions to lean a. ferved out in the same proportion, and gainst, according to the custom of the in the same manner. And though good country; all persons Gitting directly upon found small beer is an excellent antiscor- the deck with their feet bent under them. butic liquor ; yet, as it is not found suf- Jo the front of the pavilion is a circular ficient of itself to prevent the disease, it kind of throne, ar feat of eminence, fhould also be daily impregnated with the where the Nabob, or person of the highfame quantity of the juice and sugar. est distinction, is feated. This place is But as every man on board hath as much open on every side, but over the top is small beer as he chuses to drink, a quan• stretched a canopy of velvet and gold, tity of this liquor should be taken up the whole breadih of the boat, fupported daily, equal to the allowance of grog, abaft by the pavilion, and forwards by in order to be mixed with the juice and two painted staves, the tops of which, as fugar, and served out regularly in the well as the top of the pavilion, is ornafame manner.

mented with golden cones, and surroundBy these means, there will be such a ed with a gold fringe, with tatels of quantity of vegetable antiscorbutic juices gold pendent at every corner. thrown gradually into the body every day, The boat is moved by paddles, and by way of diet, as, in all human proba. worked by thirty rowers, who fit bebility, will entirely counteract the bad bind the pavilion, with their faces fronte effe&s arising from the putrescent and ing the direction of motion. The pad noxious qualities of the remainder of the dies are furnished on each of their handles sea-food; and thus hinder the body from with two brass rings, which clasing torunning into that state of coruption gether at every motion given to the which is the genuine and true source paddles, ferve to make the rowers keep of the scurvy.

time*, who fmging to the found, thereby A Description of the curious Boat lately regulate the notion. brought from India, and presented to

The their Majesties by Gov. Vanfittart.

This explains a passage in the ancient THis magnificent boat is called in Ben: Erfe poem, Fingal, 6:0, lately, tranflated,

gal a Mohr Punkee, or peacock-buat, viz. She liftens to the winds of Night to hear from its resemblance to a peacock, ha- the voice of thy rowers. Mr Macpherson in a ving at its prow the figure of that bird, note obferves, that the practice of finging the tail of which is prolonged the whole when they row is universal among the inhaLength of the boat, the plumage on each bitants of the north-west coast of Scotland fide beirg most beautifully painted and and the illes; for this practice he asigns onvarnilhed. The length is about eighty ly two reasons, being, as he says, to deceive feet ; and the extreme breadth, which time, and inspirit the rowers ; whereas ano. is towards the front, is nine feet ; from ther, and the chief reafon, ivas, to make them

Ds Potter alfo, in his Antiquiwhence it gradually diminishes to the kecp time. ftern, which is terminated by the gro cultom in the ancient gallies to have an offi

cies of Greece, observes, that it was the tesque or imaginary figure of a filh's head,

cer called a tanpaians, a kind of musician, richly gilt, considered in India as an en- who, by the harmony of his voice and inSign of royalty, and permitted to bo strument, raised the spirits of the rowers borne only by persons of the bighest dir

wbcu tinflion,

The boat is steered by a long oar faa At the head and stern of the vessel are Stened on the larboard side near the stern two linall malts painted with veripilion, after the manner of the ancients *. It on which are fixed streamers of crimson glides with great velocity along the fur- filk, interspersed with flowers of gold in face of the water, not drawing more than the Moorish taste, which with other ornine inches,

naments too numerous to particularize,

give it a splendid and elegant appearance, when weary with labour, and ready to faint, as we read in Statius :

beyond description. Acclivis malo mediis interfonal Orpheus

This boat was divided into three parts

for convenience of stowage, and brought Remigiis, tantosque jubet nescire labores. Such an officer as is here mentioned is at this whole was put together and fitted up by

över to England in as many thips. The day actually employed in most of the rowgallies in the East Indies, particularly in gal. Rotherhithe.

Mr Bodmin, at his wharf near Mill stairsi lies of state - as is the vessel we are now defcribing. His province is, to makc the rowers chearful. He is dressed in a fantastic

SIR,

Leigh, od. 29. 1769. habit, with feathers in his turban, and bells I Was laßt week informed of the followon his arms and legs, assuming a character

ing accident.-The surgeon of a cer. not unlike our Merry Andrew, and is known taio ship, lately returned, unexpectedly by the name of the fool of the boat. — The received the grand pox by inoculation, distortions of his body, and his ridiculous only thro' means of a scratch on one of grimace, added to the jingling of the bells, bis hingers wherewith he dressed his veand the queer tone of his voice, cannot fail nereal patients. to make all about him smile who are not de- This is a new discovery, and not imprived of their eyes and ears. — But his probable, as we know the fucking in. principal business is, not so much to divert, fant receives that disease only by means as to be the leader of his band ; and herein he of the infected nurle's nipple ; and also is of fingular use, all the rowers taking thews, the advantage of removing such their time from the motions of his hands and head. The learned author las quoted without touching the fore.

drellings with proper instruments, neatly, observes further, that among the ancients the chief use of this kind of music was to

Hence, let all whole business calls them direct the rowers, that they, keeping time to dress such patients, beware that there therewith, might proceed in a regular and be no scratch or cut on their fingers; constant motion, lest by an uncertain impulse nor even any of the cuticle, or scarf-kin, of their oars, the course of the veftel thould off any part of them; left by coming inbe retarded. Hence Flaccus, in his Argonau- to contact with the venereal matter difteis,

charged, they chance to suffer the like carmine tonfas fatal infection.-Yours, &c.

J. Cook. Ire docet fummo pafim ne gurgite pugnent. Silius also speaks to the same purpose : nude stat margine puppis

for they alter not. Most facredly do they ad

here to ancient modes and systems. - Long Qui voce alternos nautarum temperet iftus, Kit remis diftet fonitum, pariterque relatis

use and prescription establishes to them a

sanction, which it is a kind of sacrilege to Ad numerum plaudat resonantia cærula tonsis.

violate, even in the most trilling concerns of This music was called viynapor ort' life: hence it is, that the manner of rowing Ipinçizóv kinos. The marching of our armies and steering vessels is exactly the same as we is regulated in the same manner with fifes find recorded by the most ancient historians, and drums. Thus also our inimitable Shake.

The rudder of the East, which is still in fpear beautifully describes the rowers in use, is of the same fashion with that of the Cleopatra's barge :

ancient Greeks and Romans, namely, 3 Who to the tune of flutes kept stroke, and large oar Nung abaft; and it is the opinion made

of the learned and ingenious Dr Hooke, in The water which they beat to follow faster his lecture on the manner of rowing the anAs amorous of their strokes,

cient gallies, read before the royal society Anthony and Cleopatra. in the year 1684, and published in his port • It is very remarkable, that the inhabi- method of steering by the long oar, is much

humous works, that the above-mentioned kors of the eastern part of the world, par

more convenien ticularly in Indostan, are as tenacious of the

and easy to manage, than the manners and customs of their progenitors, as

way of rudders now in use with us. the Medes and Perfians were of their laws,

Memorial

Geni. Mag.

Menorial in behalf of the Corsicans. tone of superiority which, in the caule

crimes are almost pardoned in the high " No man can be a true lover of Lic of England, or of those befriended by

berty in his own country, who England, he assumed over other nations. does not love to see it Aourish in every o. The English fhook Charles II. on his ther. An indifference to the liberties of throne, because he endeavoured to destroy neighbouring nations is a sure forerunner one of the bulwarks of liberty in Europe; of indifference to those of the nation and dethroned his successor, becayse he to which we belong; if the one is not joined in league, or was thought to have rather a sure mark, that we are already joined in league, with the common. enearrived at the other. Of all principles, my of the freedom of mankind. the passion for Freedom, where-ever the There is at present a people free in the is to be found, ought most to be culti- regions which saves only inbabit, who vated in free nations; not only because call on Britain alone for protection, it inspires generous and bigh thoughts and can from Britain alone receive it. in the citizens, but because it cements Need it be said that the unfortunate and free nations together, gives them a com- generous Coricans are the people alluded mon interest, forms them into a common to? bulwark against tyranny, and on the The government of Britain may be in principles of private virtue founds public such circumstances from the fetters of fecurity. From policy, perhaps, as much treaties, or from domestic disturbances, as from virtue, the Romans affected to that it may be improper for her to interbe the patrons of the liberty of mankind; pore even in defence of a people that rea and hence they came to govern the semble her own. Buç if the public canworld. In the Peloponnesian war, as de- not, without breaking through the rules fcribed by Thucydides, the different states of good policy, interpose, there are no of Greece joined with Athens, or with fetters upon private persons. It is the Sparta, according as the different constie privilege of Britons, that they can apply tutions of their states resembled that de- the superfiuity of their wealth, wheremocratical, or that oligarchical form of ever their own generous breasts point government, in one or other of wbich out it should be directed. Government the system of liberty was, at that period, cannot stop them, and therefore other thought to be comprehended.

nations cannot complain to the public : When the Speaker of the house of when private persons raise and give conCommons gave thanks to K. William tributions in a way disagreeable to them. and the Dutch, for their services in tiie Britain has this yet wanting to complete revolution, he put the King in mind, her glories, that the individuals of her that the Dutch had now repaid to the people may cve that protection to a finkEnglith that protection which the Englilla ing nation, which only the mnarchs or had, a century before, beftowed upon rulers of great states áre, in other parts them. The courtiers (aw unpolitenets in of Europe, able to bestow. A private the remark; but the deliverer of Europe citizen oi Antwerp, by stopping the heard it with pleasure. In mort, no funds of Spain, stopped the Armada for maxim in politics can be more true, than six months from invading England. The that free nations, surrounded with na. pride of the house of Austria thought it. tions that are not free, should encourage felf honoured, not degraded, by receiand protect freedom abroad as well as at ving, in the war before the latt, a prehome.

sent from a Britill subject which it No nation either ancient or modern, would have scorned to receive from the has ever felt more strongly the force of subject of any other nation.” these generous principles than the Eng. Thus far the cause of Corsica has been lith. They adore the memory of Q. E. favoured with the pen of a writer of diflisabetli, because the stretched her pro. tinguitbed abilities. May I be permittection to the perfecuted Proteitants in ted to add, that even setting afte the France and the Netherlands. They de• effential interest, which this nation has, Ipile that of K. James, because he tame to prevent the French from becoming ly gave up the Palatinate to the rage of masters of the Mediterranean, every m s. her evemies. The first complaints a. tive of generosity and humanity calls upgainst Charles I. arose from his desertion on us to fupport the Corsicans. Let us of the Huguenots in France. Cromwell's The Duchess of Marlborough. 6. VOL. XXX.

consider

4 K

rero.

consider them only in the light of a di- discord by the most false imputations. stresied people. Surely our benevolence The Porte, restrained by the upright is never refused to the distressed; and conduet the court of Rúlia continued shall we refuse it to those whose distress to maintain towards them, listened, but is occafioned by their bravely defending it was with caution, to the calumny that their liberties?

was spread. Some attention to the affairs The sentiments with which the gene. of Poland, and an impartial examination rous aid of individuals is received in of what Russia had done, compared with Corsica, will best appear from what the the overtures made by that court at the illustrious chief Paoli writes to me, on Porte, had dispersed all suspicion, and being informed that a society of gentle. the public tranquillity seemed to be no men had sent two and thirty piece of more threatened. The common eneor inane from Scotland, for the ser• mies, however, repeated their infinua. vice of the brave islanders: “Li prin- tions with more rage and audacity than cipi forcorono per le for mire politiche ed ever, to impose upon the credulity of the enterrsl-te. Questo e un fuffidio che ci Turkish nation, and infused a spirit of procura la virtù e l'umanità.” “ Prin- discontent among them, which called for ces sive succours from political views and the notice of government for it bad forinterests. This is the subsidy of virtue ced its way even into the Seraglio. and humanity." [xxiv. 674.]

The change in the ministry, brought about The Corsicans have already done won by these events, foon produced a ders again it the French ; and if they are Jution in the system of peace, equally Speedily supplied with money to purchase dear to both nations. The new Vizir, ammunition, and pav the men, who, upon his advancement, immediately sent while under arms, cannot provide for for M. Obreskow, her Imperial Majesty's themselves, I have good authority to hope resident at the Porte; and after having that we fall see them nobly resist all the caused to be read in his presence a declaforce of the enteiny.

ration full of heavy charges against his JAMES Boswell.

court, part of which had already been in. Contributions are received by Andrew validated by the most fair and candid exDrummond, Efq; and Co. Bankers at planations, and others that had never Charing-cross, London, and John Coutts, existed, or were ever thought of, the Eq; and Co. Edinburgh.

Vizir pressed him to sign immediately,

under the guaranty of the allies of his The declaration of the Imperial court of sovereign, fome very offensive conditions,

Ruffia to the courts of Europe, upon the in regard to which there never had been are of its minijler resident at Conftan- made the least propofal during the whole tinople.

course of the operations in Poland. These Received by letters from St Petersburg of conditions, very derogatory to the honour Nov. 20.

and glory of the Empress, accustomed to

receive no law, propoled in a tone and ER Imperial Majesty, in taking a part form repugnant to the freedom of nego

in the transactions of the republic of tiation adopted by every power, were Poland, as humanity on one side, and the attended by the alternative of an imme. obligations of her crown on the other, diate rupture of the perpetual peace bebad prompted her, was no less careful to

tween the two empires. The Ruffian conduet berself in such a manner as not minister, confident of the upright intento give any umbrage to a jealous and tions of his couri, and conicious of the powerfui neighbour : every part of her probity of his own condua, as having conduct was public: and Me had likewise fulfilled the duties of a long ministry, a particular attention to communicate in

was incapable of unworthily degrading confidence to the Oitoman Porte her rehis court and his own character by a busolutions upon every step She took, and militating engagement, and which would the conduct she intended to observe till have exceeded the power and commilion the peace and tranquillity of that king of any minifter, let them be ever so er. dom' wa mpirely re-established. But tenlive; he gave therefore a pofitive re. the enemies to the peace of these two fulal, as became bis honour and his duiv; empires were not wanting to blacken at

- and the resolution of the divan, which the Porte, all the actions of her Imperial followed immediately after, was to arrett Majesty, and to fow there the seeds of him, and part of his retinue, and carry

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