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livres per hogshead, or u. Sterling; up- rect any errors of the officers who collectwards of 4d. per gallon Halifax curren- ed the duties, in July 1765 I caused an cy: Ou wine, 12 livies per hogshead, or account to be inserted in the Quebec jo s. Sterling : On ordinary wine bottled, gazette, with the particulars of the days one halfpenny per bottle. On /weet wine, of entry, the species and names of vessels, one penny halfpenny per bottle, The commanders names, and from whenct, duty on dry goods was three per cent. and the quantity and quality of the spirits, produced that year 3363 1. 18 s. 3 d. 2 f. and 'the lúms collected on each, from Sterling : That on goods exported pro. May 1761 tu 1765, when the duty terduced the saine year 1637 1. 18 s. 4 d. 2 f. minated by the establishment of civil go

When Canadu was conquered by his veroinent; and it appeared that the whole Majesty's arms, and I had the honour to annount of the duties taken by my order be appointed, by the King's commillion, for these four years, was only 12,223 1. governor of Quebec, and its dependen- 2 s. Halifax currency; whereas, at an cies, it was natural for me to aisert the average, had I exacted the wliole duties King's rights; as it was just that the new which exilled during the French governconqueft should contribute something to- ment, the fun would hare been not lets wards its own support, at a time when than 52,cool. Ste:ling. Every shilling England was groaning under the load of of the money I collected was expended an expensive war. It cannot be difpu- for the service of the crown; and the ted, I imagine, that the law of nations accounts of receipts and disburlements gives the conqueror a right to every thing were annually fent to the treatusy-board. the former pofleffor could claim ; and I After the elapse of fu many years, five am mistaken if he has not a right like. English traders, importers of French wise to the mode of claiming it. As the brandy and New England rum into Querepresentative of my master, I had the bec, not contented with the high price same powers therefore to alter and im- they had iniposed upon the poor Cinapole duties which the French King's go- dians, the consumers, brought actio:s in vernor and intendant had. The use I the month of January last against me, made of that power was not to oppress for lums received of them by the different the people, but to alleviate their former officers, under a pretence that the whole burthens. For instead of demanding the of the duties were illegal, and infisting ufual duties, I annihilated those on dry that the whole therefore ought to be regoods imported and exported, not only funded by me. The money, as I have with a view to the encouragement of the observed, having been accounted for to manufactures of G. Britain, but to pre- the treasury, the officers of the crown vent the other colonists from under selling took tlie direction in defending thele acthe Quebec traders at the Indian market: tions; and they thought it advise able and for the same reasons I exempted all that the sum levied as an excess on British spirits from any duty whatever. rum, beyond the old duty, would be paid But with respect to other spirits, pot Brio into court. This was oppoled by the tish, I exacted 6 d. per gallon Halifax plaintiffs, who insisted on a right to the currency; 5s. fane currency per bogshead whole. on wines; and d. that currency per

The actions were tried by a special gallon on Ihrub : fo that upon every are jury;, when the existence of the French ticle, except rum, the duties were in no dugies, as above stated, was clearly proinstance to high as the French duities : ved by the original cuítomhouse-books; and though the French had made the and the plaintiffs countel, without furdury on rum' lower than on other spirits, ther arguingihe point, consented to take in order to encourage the produce of a verdict merely for the excess on rum ; their sugar-colonies, even in preference which was agreed to on behalf of the to the produce of the mother country of crown : and notwithstanding it appeared, France; yet the policy of G. Britain had that the plaintiffs had paid less than the been always different; and I therefore old duties on brandy and eau de vie de put rum on the same footing with all o- liqueur ; yét, from the lenity of the ther spirits, not Britills, and imposed crown, that was not infifted upon, alupon it a lower duty than the French though it would have reduced the claims had imposed on brandy, the produce of of the plaintiffs to a mere trifle. Old France.

JA. MURRAY. That the public might see what sums Portman-Square, Feb. 29. 1768. had been collected, and be able to core

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The true causes of the high price of provi.

The fop Narcifus contemplating his fions.

own dear form, in the crystal fount, cried Wheat is as cheap now as rye and barley has made me poor."' It became a cox

out, Inopem me copia fecit; My wealth were in furoner times. Harte on huis

comb fo to do and say. But for a man bandry.

in his sober senses, to have said such a IT is an observation of a late celebrated thing, and to bave behaved in such a

writer, that " whatever shall explain manner, must have expoled him to ridithe true and fundamental causes of the cule and contempt. That a man, who present high price of provisions to the has common sente and atiention, mould people, and give some check to the non- serioulv ofert, that our riches, taxes, and lenle which is every where wrote, talked, national debts [xxix. 645.), are the cane and propagated on this subject, is an at- les of the inhancement of the price of tempt, which may render great and im- provisions, since the year 1759, seems portant service both to the locial and po- more wonderful than the exclamation of litical world.” In the height of bis zeal Ovid's fop in the words quoted : but more for the public weal, douities such fentio especially so, as every fellow who fodders ments tempied hiin to let fortly fix-penny. cous could liave informed him, that the worth of his own conceptions, which ap- cold and dry springs, and hot sum:ners, pear to be as raw, crude, and indigelled or, in Nort, the unleasonable weather nonsense and traih, as ever flowed from from 1759 to 1764, diminished grass and the nioft factions and leditious pen, Mar- hay to luch a degree, that the dairy-farmpened by bunger, and envenomed by dil. ers were obliged to turn of above one appointment.

third of their ttock extraordinary, and That envious, malicious, and wicked reduce it to near half, by preparing it for men, should endeavour to avail themselves the butcher, to prevent the rest from: ítarof every incivient in life, and of every ving, because they had little fodder for dispensation of providence, in order to the winte: -leafons. Likewise every plough. render that adıniniftration odious which bov could have čcquainted him, that the they batt, because ibey are thought by immoderate wet weather, and little lun thole in power un worthy of Tharing the and warmth, we had in 1766, leffened emoluments of government, or that the the crop of grain one third ; and that an rabble fhould be milicken in their opie unfavourable season in 1767, added to nions, is not at all to be wondered at. the former misfortune and calamity, This ignorance and malignity in human That the fa-mer cannot, and does not ret nature has always, and always will, pre- the price of grain, is obvious from his vail. But that a writer, who takes upon selling sometimes at half what it cost him; hinto inftruet and reprehend others, for surely he would always have a high Dould ay into the regions of nonsense price, if it was in his power. But comand absurdity to seek for causes of natu- petition, the ruling principle in trade ral phenomena, when the true causes are all over the commercial world, prevents obvious, and lie under his nose, would be extortion, and immoderate profits. Voyer very surprising indeed, if we had not les elemens du commerce, Ġ Si aur dupre. beard of a philnlopher, who, gazing at There was no occasion to have recourse the stars, tumbled into a ditch. Where to moral, political, or commercial caufaction, knavery, and malice point, it is les, to account for the phenomena ; they no u onder that ignorance and discontent were obvious to every country-booby einSiould follow. Luxury pinched, debau. ploved in husbandry, though bid' from chery coxtrouled, and noth roured, bee the wise and great, and unleen by the macome snarlig, peevilly, and petulant, nufacturing rabble, with whion great Ttady to snap at and bite every thing pains were taken, by every faliebood, to which is boldly and impudently declared make them believe, that God had given to be the cause of their distress or unea- plenty, and man bad created an artificial fin=ts. But for a writer who assumes the famine ; a thing as morally impoflibile in dictatorial air, seiz:s the cathedra, and this kingdom, as to create an artificial jete up for a demagogue and intructor, dry fumier, and rainy season. Howeto fall into the grofert blunders, whilst ver, the abandoned and profligate made reprehending others, is extremely incon. use of the lupidity of the great vulgar, grogus, and must excite horse laughter and of the malice of artful knares, to and great contempt.

palliate the guilt of their licentiousness

and

and robberies. Thus malice and faction 1270, wheat was sold at 16 s. a huchel propagated false notions, to distress go. although its common price was about six vernment, and render it odious ; igno- pence a bufhel, and it rold in 1288 so low rance adopted them; and profligacy as eight pence a quarter. Hence in the pleaded then, in excuse of riot and rapine. dearth of 1270, it fold at thirty-two

The causes here alligned are the true times its common price. Bp Goodwin in causes of the present inhancement of the his annals says, that in 1507, wheat was price of provisions above what it was at 13 s. 4 d. a-bullel, though wages from 1742.to 1952, and from 1759 to were but about 8 d. a day. Henry 1764, in which interval they were perci. Knightou oolerves, that in and about ciously chear. Such were the causes of 1290, wheat was dear, and sometimes the grand calamity, about which there fula at London at 10 s. a-buliel, (though has been so much noise, claniour, non- its common price was about 6 d.); and sense, faction, rict, and rapine stirring. that great carcity continued oif und on for Likewise the factious motives suggested near forty years, though fometimes it fold have been the true source of all the cen. at i s. a quarter. Lond. Chron. sures palled on our laws and administra. tion, the whole work of avarice, igno

SIR,

London, Fib. io. rance, malice, disappointed ambition, I Have a regard for the human fpecies in and other base passions. The dearth we general, but more particularly for the Suffer is the work of God, not of man. fernale sex, considering them as creatures By wise and good men, famines have al. who are the easiest prey to villans, and ways been considered as the chastisements have absolutely lost all chance of reputa. of Heaven for our livs. But God has tion and peace in this world when they been jostled out of the question, and most are robbed of their virtue. - A poor girl impiously and profanely overlooked by of the tow! came up to me in the Strand the wretched fcribblers, who liave de. last night, and begeed hcartily for a litclaimed on the subject, as if there were tle charity: - Her tongue bore the real 110 over-ruling Providence in the uni. sound of distress; and the told me, as I verse. Thus, according to the writer a. clapped 2 d. into her hand, that the would bove-mentioned, I have done great ser. be glad if the could get into an hospital, vice to the public, by aligning the true

as he had no friend to make intereit for causes of the inhancement of provisions. her, and no faiher or mother to return to. It now remains for you, Mr Chronicle, Let those who have any title to buma. to do your part, and midwife them into nity, reflect for a moment on the condi. the world.' How far human policy and tion of a prostitute ! - debauched, forla. prudence may alleviate such calamities, ken, pennylels, disealed, despised, a must be left for the subject of another lave to her own palled appetite, loathing letter. I am, &c.

embraces the is necellitated to yield to, OECONOMICUS.

and unpitied in a world of misery! P. S. Bp Fleetwood says, Thät in Where is the friendly generous hand that 1314, upon the chancellors and proctors will refiore her to penitence, that will complaints to the King (E. II.) ihat the give her a chance for heaven? market of Oxford ran unreatonably high,

Is it a thing impoflile, that the greatso that poor scholars could hardly live, est object of pity in the whole creation the King lent down his mandate tó regi- Dould meet with kindnes? And yet, late this affair. Upon this the parlia- from the fparkling Dachels down to the ment fet a rate on provisions, and a cow wife of a fhoemaker, a dejected proflitute was rated at 102, a hen at id, 2 f. 24 receives none from any ! Reviling and eggs at id. &e. But, says the Bishop, scorn top the mouth of benevolence itself things could not be purchased at there too often, and the deaf ear is turned to rates; for people would not bring them female complaints of want and forrow, lo market; and that is a thing parlia- the most horrible of any to a man of feels ments cannot remedy: so the King was ing!--Great God of heaven and earth, fain to revoke the former act, and leave look down on the distress of those who the people to sell as they would; for a have no friend but thee ! trade will do as it car, and never be forced

An Old Correspondent. one way or the ctlier. By rains in harvest in 1315, wheat was at 40 s. a quarter, London Chronicle. though in 1302 at 4 5. a quarter. In

The

03 The summary of the PUBLIC APFAIRS of 1767, concluded. [8] WE had occasion to observe formerly, of the kingdom interested themselves in

that most of the parliaments of their favour wiih so much zeal, as gave FRANCE have thewed, by their proceed the court great un-afineis; but their enings and reprelentations, for some time deavours to be of service to them proved paít, that they reckoned strong atteinpts from time to time ineffictwal. The memwere made by the court, in 1765, to de. bers of the parliament of Rennes taken prive the province of Brittany of the im- into custody claimed their privileges in munilies and privileges reserved and se- opposition to the arrest, and denied the cured to it, when long ago it came uo- competency of the committion to try them. der the dominion of the crown, and Their trial was in effect diayed froin one which it bad till then continued in good time to another; anu al len tli, in virtue measure to enjoy. The parliament of of an arret of council,dated Nov. 22. 1766, Rennes, capital of that province, finding they were removed from Rennes to the the execution of such a icheme infited Biltile, in order that the King hinreif on, according to their opinion, all the night determine the matter. Abui that members of it, except tuelve, relighed time we had adiice, that the several par. their offices, and absolutely reiused to re- liaments were using giest efforts to main. sume them, though commanded by the tain their authority against the iniluence King, as no offers were made to redrets of the court ; but that,' on the other their grievances. Several other parlia. band, the miviitry were as afliduous in Denis interceded in their favour, by let their endeavours to cuh them, in whiclı ters and remonttrances to his Majesty ; it was imagined they would at length but without eff&t. Some members of succeed, by the vicip of the dergy, whio that parliament were seized by dragnons, feconded them wiin all their power. and carried to confinement in different 1. counts received in the beginning of places ; the rest of those who resigned last year imported, that after bearing the being at the same time bavilhed to the accusations againt the confined me ubers distance of twelty leagues from Rennes, of the parliament of Rennes read, the and as many from Paris. Another parlia- King, of his great goodness, ordered let. jneni of Rennes was con Niluted, by the ters under the seals to be published, anKing's declaration, in November 1765, nuling every accusation against them : composed of the twelve vid members who not wildancing which, M. de Chalotois did not refign, and the rest new ones, and his fon were exiled to Saintez, while making fixiy in whole, is we learned the other accused members had bis Maje. froin late accounts. His Majesty's decla- tty's leave to retire to their eftates. All ration likewise ordered tive or 6% of the the other members who had refined their old members who had religued, to be pro- offices, still remained, for any thing we fecuted before a commition of the new heard to the contrary, under an interdict parliament, which was travsferred for of going nearer than twenty leagues to that purnote to St Milo, ilie whole of the capital of the kingdom, or that of ihat parliament being extremely unpopu• their own province, jar ai Rennes.

The lates o! Brittany having come to The parliament of Pau, capital of Bern, a réfolution, that they would not go upon having that year patied in arret which cny business relating to the province, till gave offence to the court, and a declara- they had obtained the re-establiment of tion of bis Majesty for annulling it being their parliament on the footing it was in fent them, with orders to register.itie de: January 1764, the King sent instructious, claration, they reckoned it inconsistent dated the 6th of January last year, to inwith conscience and honour to whey; and foorne them, that he would not change the therefore addreiled a letter to the King, reislution he had taken to maintain the demanding their dismillon. A new par. pew forin of his parliament of Brittany, liadent was also nominated in their head, and not io stiler the number of its memwhich asembled at Pau in November that be:s to exceed fixty ; allo that it was in lane ytar.

vain tu suppose he woulu diisiss the good A great part of the news from France fervants he had among them, and fill their eser Gnce, was confilled of articles rela.. places with such as had been wanting is ting to the one or other of those two pare their duty to him; to reseat to them for liaments. Almoft she wi.cle parlaments ibe la licit, that lie very expressly for VOL. XXX

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bade the states to interefere any longer states of Brittany broke up, the 23d of with what concerned his parliament; and May, they fhewed their willingneis to to tell them, 'that if they perfilted in ma- comply with his Majesty's orders, by reking new representations, he could look gistering a new edict sent them, importupon their behaviour in no other light, ing, that a resolution ihall always be conthan as an absolute disobedience to his sidered as passed by the states, when two will. The 19th of that same month the orders have approved of it, and only one parliament of Paris refolved, that his Ma• opposes it. They also agreed, that the jesty thould be petitioned to wipe off the order of Nobility shall, for the future, stain caft upon magistracy, by the dif- be composed of those only whose ancestors grace under which the members of the bad a right to be members of the states, parliament of Brittany continued, or to before the province became subject to the deliver to his Attorney-General the par. crown. Notwithstanding this ready obeticulars of the charge against them, in oro' dience on the part of the states, and der that the affair might be decided ac• their known earnest desire to have their . cording to the laws of tfre land; but re• parliament put in its old fituation, the ceived only a fresh check for their further answer which the new parliament aftertheddling.

wardo received to their letter written the Some time after that, the parliament preceding day, informed them of the of Rouen, capital of Normandy, resolved King's firm resolution to maintain the to make fresh reinonstrances in regard to difpofitions on that sulje& made by his that of Brittany, which were drawn up edićt of November 1765. After that, in eight articles; and that is all we know we heard no more of the affair. of them. It is observable, tirat all the On the 19th of May, the parliament parliaments appear to have conformed of Paris, with the concurrent opinion of Strictly to what his Majesty faid, as part his Majesty's council, made an arret, of an answer to a grand deputation of the declaring the society of Jetuits an eneiny parliament of Paris, on the oth of March to sovereigns, and to the public tranquil. 1766, namely, “My will and my resolu. lity of states; ordering all the meinbers tions are declared, that they may be pue of that fociety, who, taking the benefit blicly known; your deliberations, on the of an indulgence granted to them by an contrary, ought to remain fecret." For edict of November 1764, had remained fome time before that, it was common e- in the kingdom, to depart within fifteen nough to see whole remonstrances of a days, under pain of criminal prosecution, parliament, or the most material and except those who had taken a certain oatbp itriking parts of them, in our public pa- prescribed by that court; and not to repers.

turn, on any pretence whatever. They We were told, that matters were once forbade all bis Majesty's subjects to afford in a fair way towards restoring the parlia. any asylun to Jesuits, or keep the least ment of Brittany to its former footing, correspondence with them; and injoined upon all the three orders which compose all archbishops, bishops, and all heads of the states of that province agreeing to corninunities, schools, and other establilli. settle every thing in other respects to his ments, not to employ any of them in the Majesty's facisfaction; but frelh alterca- education of youth. That parliament at tions destroyed all the hopes which had the fame time resolved to implore the been conceived.

King, that he would use bis good offices Even the new parliament of Rennes for engaging the Pope, and other Catho. fent a very moving letter to the King, tholic princes, to abolish so dangerous a dated the 22d of May last year, in which fociety ; and that be would make the tethey besought him to recall all the mem- nor of the preceding arret a fundamental bers of that body who were exiled, and laws of the state. Being afterwards indeprived of their employnients, and fore. formed, that there were some Jesuits ftore that sovereign court to its ancient e. whole age and infirmities rendered them stablishment. If any more than twelve incapable of quitting the kingdom, they members of the old parliament have of- ifsued another arret, injoining the proper fices in the new, we had either been mis- officers to lay before them the moit expe. informed by accounts given us of the e- dient methods of placing luch in itonateNablisiment made in November 1765, or ries and hospitals near the places of their have not received notice of alterations' then residence. They had some meetings which have happened since. Before the about their ordinary ting of rising, chiet

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