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for his lord more than one day's work in pay 50,000 l. Sterling yearly. The diffia week. [xxix. s.]

culty then remaining unsettled was, that The Einpress of Russia, amidst her Sweden demanded the subsidy should comregards to the affairs of Poland, has not mence from the time of ratifying the lott light of what concerns the country treaty, whereas G. Britain inclined that under her own dominion. A scheme has it should be due only from the time of ving been set on foot some time ago, for requiring the succours. Mean while there profecating inquiries to the north east, was a numerous party in Sweden of opi we received advice from Petersburg in the nion, that it would be better to renew beginning of last year, that four natives such engagements with France. Next of Kamtschatka had arrived there, after advices inported, that the court of Vera journey of several months; and that sailles had remitted another million of they were to be accompanied in their re- livres to Stockholm, to account of old arTurn home by some geographers appoint, rears of subsidies due, and had promised ed by the Empress, for making discove- to pay at the rate of 500,000 livres eve ries of the streight which separates Alia ry six months, till the whole flould be from America.

cleared. This gave the ascendant to the Arother object of her Imperial Maje- party in the interest of France, so that fiy's care for a considerable time, has been before the end of the year a treaty of

a revisal of the laws of the empire, and subsidy was renewed with that power; by 1. the composing of a new system for the a private article of which, as advices

further civilization of her people. A from Stockholm bear, Sweden is to furcommission of 460 deputies, chosen out of nilh his Most Christian Majesty, as soon the leveral provinces, for allisting in the as posible, with a certain number of formation of the new code, made a fo. war-thips of the line built there. lemn opening of their fellions the 10th of His Majesty of DENMARK, for the enAugust, at Moscow, in presence of the couragement of commerce and manufacEmprels, who favoured that ancient capi. tures, illued an ordinance early in the tal with ber residence there during a great year under review, for reducing the inpart of the last year.

terest of money to four per cent. With Attentive also to the promotion of an extensively buniane and patriotic view, learning, ber Imperial Majesty has alrea- he had formed a design, upon his first acdy charged the academy of sciences to cesion to the throne, for delivering the observe the passage of Venus before the peasants from that Navish vastalage bv body of the Sun, which has been calcula- which, throughout his dominions, they ted to happen in June 1769; and for ob. were subjec, almost in every respect, to ferving which, resolutions have also been the proprietors of manor-lands. The taken in other countries. The Russian King and Queen themselves set the ex. observations are to be made at eight difo ample, which has been followed by a ferent places in that great empire; and good many of the nobility. His Majestv as the instruments in the observatory at has appointed a commission to deliberate Petersburg are not sufficient, her Majelly on the most proper expedients for emanhas ordered more to be procured from cipating that opprefied order of people. England and France. [21.]

Towards the end of the vear, he caused According to accounts from SWEDEN the privilege which the officers of the miearly in the last year, a resolution had litia in Norway had, of employing the been taken in the diet which ended a few private men inlisted into that body in all months before, that the treaty of alliance forts of services and vallalages, to be anand friendlhip then lately renewed with pulled. G. Britain, should not in any respect al- Of the not very numerous articles of ter or infringe on the alliances and trea- advice we had from GERMANY, few need ties tormerly concluded with other powers. to be taken notice of here. The Jesuits In fummer we were inforined, that a at Vienna, fearing the same treatment treaty of alliance and subsidy betiseen their order had met wiih in several other Sueden and G. Britain was ihought to countries, apylied to ile Empref:-('een, be near a conclufion, the fundamental are imploring her projection. The aufver ticles being actually agreed on, namely, fid to have been given then war, Tint That the former Mouid furnish the latter if they preserved an irreproachabie con. with 6000 men, or a proportionate uun- duct, fuiibfully dilcharging the duties of ber of war-ships, whenever require.!; in their state, and not meduling in confideration of which the latier iliould


or less.

which did not concern thein, they should This root seems to be first parboiled, suffer no harm. We were also informed, or fome how exposed to the steam of hoe that the Pope sent a brief to the Empe- water, (in the mannor, perhaps, in which ror, exhorting him to grant his protec. the Chinese prepare their genseng); it tion and allistance to the afflicted society. is then dried; and will keep for any Mean wbile the Imperial Court called the known length of time. Jesuits at Prague to an account, and de- This root is of a tough, solid texture, manded their title to a benefice they por- and incapable of being dried to such a defelled there, for not having performed, gree of brittleness, as to be reduced to during a century past, the conditions on powder, without considerable labour. which they had obtained it, namely, the The common way of using this powder maintaining of some schools, and appoint. is, to mix a tea-spoonful of it with a ing a certain number of masters to teach quarter or half a pint of hot water, stirin them. The Empress-Queen caused ring them well together; adding a little an ediet to be published at Brullels

, pro- wine, sugar, and spice of any kind, to hibiting the admission of any Jeluits ex- the person's taste. pelled from Spain, or exiled from France, It is become the practice of most ate into the Austrian Netherlands, whether tendants on the tick, to give them this they had been born her subjects or not. preparation, in all circumstances and

On the 4th of O&ober last, the Prince conditions, but more particularly to the of Orange, hereditary Stadtholder of the feeble convalescents, as a restorative and UNITED PROVINCES, was married, at strengthener. Berlin, to the Princess Frederica-Sophia- Salep in powder is almost infipid; and Wilhelmina, his Prussian Majesty's niece, mixed in this manner in hot water, soon and fister of the Prince. Royal. All the becomes a viscid, glutinous, tasteless mels, provinces testified great joy on that oc- thicker or thinner as the proportion of casion several ways, particularly by ma- water and powder are more king valuable presents to the Princess. Wine, sugar, spices, give it any taste That made by the province of Holland, that is desired. But still it is glutinous, was a resolution of the States of it, tó viscid, in many stomachs quite indigestipay her yearly 20,000 florins. It should ble, and to most disagreeable. be here recollected, that early in the The following is the manaer in which year 1766 the Prussian monarch lent a it is prepared in the East. memorial to the States-General, requi. Let a spoonful of the fine powder of ring the settlement of a claim for above salep be well mixed with a quart of cold four millions of Aorins, as old as since water, and then set upon the firé. It 1672, which bis subjects of Cleves, We must be kept incessantly stirring, and fel, Emmerick, and Orsoy, had upon their gently boiling, till a little of it when High Mightinesses, and which then gave cool appears a perfect jelly; thicker or them considerable uneasiness. We may thinner, according as it is desired. now suppose that affair has been, or soon Before it is taken from the fire, either will be, amicably compromised. Accounts a little mace, or cinnamon, or lemonwere received of a treaty being on foot, for peel, is put in, or none of them, at the the Dutch granting to his Prusian Ma- patient or prescriber's option ; sugar and jesty certain tracts of territory in the East wine are added likewise ad libitum. Indies, towards extending the commerce Prepared in this manner, the falep of the new Asiatic company established seems to be no improper addition to the Jately at Embden. We were also told, diet of convalescents, or in hectic cases ; that the states of Holland had ordered le but to give it promiscuously in all cases, veral ships of the line to be built. is scarcely prudent. The powder mixed [To be continued.]

with warm water, in a weak stomach, is

utterly indigestible. SIR,

08, 29. 1767. Boiled in ihe manner above mentioned, А

Substance has of late years been in- it may stand on a level with other gluti

troduced into the diet of invalids of nous preparations of the like consistence. this country, the right preparation of It is a variety, and may be to some perwhich seems to be generally unknown. sons, and in some cales, a pleasing varie

The substance I mean is the root called ty ; but in respect to real ure, I think it Salep, or Saleb, a species of Orchis, grow- fhould be rated very low in the scale of ing plentifully in many parts of the East, benefits to this country or its inhabitants. in Syria, and foine parts of Persia especialiy.



To the author of the Scots Magazine. Probably have been attended with no o

gion, which were objected to; this would · SIR,

Fanuary 1768. ther consequence, than perbaps some As

the proceedings of the synod of Glal. from him, in defence of their own views gow and Air, in relation to a letter of such matters. But how can the judi. which seems to have, violently indeed, catories of the church fit fill with indo. and contrary to your declared' inclina. lence and unconcern, while they see the tion, forced its appearance in your col. most important and essential doctrines of lection, and likewise have given a place that gospel which is cominitted to their to two letters, (ope of them) containing trust, fo avowedly and publicly arraigned reflections upon the conduct of the synod of falsehood and absurdity, by one who is [xxix. 176.524, 33, 53.), it is hoped under their inspection, and whole office you will not refuse to insert a small at. and duty it is to teach, maintain, and tempt in vindication thereof.

defend them? Had the doctrine of the church of Scot. If there is any thing in revealed reli. land, and (I may say) of all the reform- gion inore than what the philosophy of ed churches, been attacked with any the Heathens could suggest, it surely is, degree of modesty, it is probable, that That mankind being now in a fallen in the present state of religion, and fitua. state, can only be saved by the sacrifice. tion of ecclefiaftical affairs, it would not of the Son of God in our stead, and by hase drawn the same attention from any the influence of the Spirit of God in rechurch-judicatory, as it night perhaps generating our corrupt hearts, which Son have done within the memory of some and Spirit are not different and inferior yet living. But surely the orthodox in- Gods, but the same in substance with the tereft must be supposed very low indeed, Father. It was in order to ascertain this if the doctrine, and discipline too, of as the doctrine to be taught, and the rethe church of Scotland, must put up ligion to be mainiained and inforced, with such a flagrant affront from one of by the ministers on our establishment, its own minifters, without the least mo. that the Westminster Confeflion was first tion in its favour.

agreed to, and afterwards, by the highIf the Rev. Gentleman had, in imita. est authority, both civil and ecclesiastical, tion of every one else that has been pro- required to be subscribed by all the misecuted for error in this cburch, fo much nitters and office-bearers in this church. as pretended the consistency of his doc. And to teach the contrary of all this, so trine with that which is established and far from being indifferent speculations, professed among us, and to which a fo- that may be indulged with safety to the lerrn afsent was given by himself at his substance of that doctrine, is really to oordination; or, in other words, had he verturn the very foundations, and to vented nothing but what was capable of subftitute a quite different religion in the forre fort of reconciliation with it; the ato place of that which hath hitherto oblaintack would, at least, have had the ap- ed, and heen established among us. pearance of being less direct and barefa. Yet there is not one of these important ced; and this circumstance would have articles of our religion, against which belped, in some measure, to save the there are not at least the plainest insinuablulhes of his fuperiors in paling it over tions in the letter which you was induced un noticed. But fo far from allowing to publish. If there are any of them them the benefit of any such pretence for concerning which this is not obvious at their lenity, he cannot abstain even first view, it must be the two last, rela. from abufing and railing against his bre- ting to the necellity of grace, and the thren who believe what they have sub- divinity of Christ. But if we only at. fcribed their aflent to.

tend to the account he gives of the preBut of all others, the confideration of sent state of human nature, as being in greatest weight arises from the import- no need of any change, and to his pleadance of those doctrines which are the ing for an alteration in the text Rom. ix. object of his contempt. Had they been s. the matter will be as manifest with only fome unessential circumstances of respect to these articles as the rest. And religion, or modes of expression, or even that no doubt might remain what systein fome propositions that did not directly of do&trine the letter.writer adopted, Dr affe& 'the very substance of revealed reli. Taylor': labours in defence of Pelagian - VOL. XXX.




and Socinian errors are proposed as the the Socinians do not only differ in smallstandard of true theology; infomuch that er and merely speculative points of little to pretend to understand the scriptures importance, but that theirs is a quite difbetter than he did, is branded with ar. ferent religion from that which is establishrogance and conceit. Nav, so sensible is ed, I do not say in Scotland only, but in the man himself of the direct inconalency all the reformed churches, which appears of his system of divinity with the doce from the collection, intitled, Corpus et trine of this church, that, for the sake of Syntagma Confessionum, &c. This I prove such avowedly opposite tenets, a sense is, from tivo considerations. hy him, put upon the subscription of ini- 1. Those systems of doctrine which nisters to the Confefiion of Faith, so directly influence the practice, and point grossly and obviously deceitful, that e. out very different methods of avoiding ven a Jesuit would be alhamed openly to everlasting misery, and obtaining eternal espoule it.

happiness, are, in the most important All this was so far from being done, and interesting view, quite different reor intended to be done, in a corner, ligions : But luch is the case, where the that, on the contrary, a fort of trium. ope represents mankind as sunk in fin phant avowal of it seems rather to have and misery, needing a Saviour and a been affected. This appears from seve- San&ifier; while the other represents ral circumnitances which it would be te them in a state of integrity, where there dious to mention, mult of which may be is no necesity for either the one or the gathered from your Magazines: as if an other. experiment was making, how far the 2. Of all the errors in divinity, none do church of Scotland could yet bear to see more effentially change, and more effecher whole doctrine of revealed religion tually vitiate the nature of true religion, trampled upon, by her own ministers, in than such as lead to idolatry, the sin the most ignominious manner.

which is always mentioned in scripture as Whether the Socinian system of doc- most highly provoking and displeasing to trine, or that commonly called the Or. God, putting the intinite God upon a lethodox, be most agreeable to the word of vel with the nothing of a creature. Such, God, and most consonant to right reason, however, is the Socinian creed, which is a question for a full discullion of which teaches, that our Saviour is a mere creathere seems to be a present call in ture, and yet allows him to be the obprovidence. But as this cannot be done, jeet of religious worship. without exceeding any hounds that can When to thele confiderations is added, he demanded or obtained in your collec- the utter demolishing of that fence which tion, I Mall only observe upon this occa- the wildom of the nation, both in church rion, that, let the truth lie where it and state, bad raised for the preservation will, the difference between them is fo of our religion, and guarding it against great, that, in reality, they are quite the very errors vented in the letter, by different religions. It is true, the e- the sense put upon subscribing the Confpoulers of both profess to receive the fellion of Faith, which absolutely anniBible. But fo do the Papists ; and yet, bilates, and reduces it to the most palpa. I believe, there is no body who will pre- ble absurdity; how could the churchtend to say that Popery is the same reli- judicatories let such a letter pass unnogion with that which we profess. Soci. tired, without the following pernicious nianism and Popery have been usually re- consequences ? garded as the two opposite extremes. But 1. The first is an entire surrender of as the learned Professor Jamieson, in his all the advantages which the orthodox Roma Recoviana, has the wn, that there religion has hitherto been thought to is, at the bottom, a greater conformity pofless hy our present establisment. I between the two fystems than what is know how obnoxious the word orthodox commonly imagined ; to it is certain, in is. But may I not be allowed the use of fact, that, in proportion as men have the term without a sneer, only to avoid approached to the first, fo bave they ap. circumlocution, when I have declared, peared to be favourers of the last ; as in that (not having room here to justify the ilie examples of the Arminians in Hol- application) all I mean to fignify thereby land, and the Laudean faction in Eng- is, that system of doctrine, whether true Jand, with their abettors in Scotland. or falle, which has commonly passed aBut what I chiefly infilt upon is, that mong us by that denomination, as being


profefed bs, and contained in the con- meaning : lo that, in fact, when a test is feffionis of all the reformed churches, and imposed upon them, implying their belief agreed to by a general synod at Dort, to of any thing that does not appear to them which they all either sent commiflioners, to be truili, and a promise which they or yielded their consent; particularly as cannot in conscience either give or peropposed to the Pelagian and Sociniaó te. form, they are excluded by hundreds and Dets?

by thoulards, as was done at the restorafit is the duty of Christian magistrates tion, both in Scotland and England. to encourage and entertain true religion, Our orthodox fathers, however, who by Dakidz provision for the ministers came to be at the head of affairs in thereof, exclusive of false and erroneous church and state after the revolution, got, religions, the teaching and propagating their religion establilhed, and the public of which is not thought proper to be supo encouragement tecured in its favour, as parted at the expence of the public; far as it is in the power of words, or of bow else can this be done, but by the laws; which were all repeated and conestablithmeot of some test for distinguishing firmed in the strongest terins in the treabetween the one and the other? The ty of union. If there are men whom no Bible is esidently insufficient for this words can bind, there is no belp for it purpose ; unlets it is inafted on, that Pope. in the present state of human nature : ry is intitled to the fame encourage. but if the church-judicatories allow such ment among us as the Protestant reli-, prevarication in their own members, and gion. Not to mention the Greek, and suffer them, without contradialion, openOriental churches, of various denomina. ly to avow, that they will not be bound tions, Quakers, Antinomians of the by any words which ihe wisdom of man grosłeft kind, Pelagians, Socinians, &c. can invent, in that cale, it is they them. Dope of these would have the least scru. selves who at once give up all the legal ple in profeling the conformity of all securities which our religion once had to their most absurd, superstitions, idola. boast of. The enemies of that religion troes, and impious tenets, with the Bic will indeed look upon this as an advanHe. So that, upon this plan, the teach- tage; but fo will not thole who with well ers of all these false religions must be e. to it. geally intitled to the public encourage- 2. If the church-judicatories shall give Tent with the orthodox, if I may be in such a fanétion to this plan, as the suffer. dulged in the use of such an odious tern), ing it to be openly avowed by their own

Poflibly the espousers of this plan have members without' censure would neceflanot tbe interest of all thele equally at rily amount to, what can we say in anheart, perhaps have little concern for swer to the accusation of infidels, That some of then). How far they really are none of us believe the religion wo teach? for extending the benefit of it, I do not If we aliow ourselves, for a livelinood, pretend to say; but surely it cannot be to make a folemn profeflion, that we bedeosed, that the plan is calculated for lieve such and such doctrines to be agreethe admision of all who bear the Chri- able to the word of God, while it is conftian name, as well as themselves, not felled that we believe no such thing; excepting even the grofleit Popiah idoia- why may we not likewise be supposed, for ters. At the same time, I hope they will the fame motive, to predih, That the Dot refuse to own, that, if no more bad scriptures are the word of God, that there been intended but the exclusion of Jews, is a beaven and a hell, óc, without be: Mabometans, and Heathens, the shorter lieving one word of the inatter for all way of doing this, and more agreeable that? to Christian sinplicity, would have been, 3. It is well known, that the Seceders to require only an acknowledgement of have always ailedged, as a chief ground the Bible to be the word of God, with of their Icceflion, our departure from out going such an aukward round-about the doctrine of the church of Scotland. way to it, as the requiring a lolemn de. This has always been denied on our part. claration of fo meaningleis a thing as a and treated as a calumny. Among a belief, that the doćirine of our contellion variety of teflimonies that might be quois agreeable to the word of God so far as ted for the contirmation of this, I mall it is agreeable to it. This would put mention only one, nainely, that of Mr the orthodox and them upon a more c. Alexander Ferguson miniiler of Kilwinqual froting. For the first cannot help looks ling; W.., in a pampiilet, intitled: A ing upon a roleon declaration' as waving a


B 2.

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