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In the statement the continent is properly named first, because it is far away in the interior of the continent that the line begins, and it is the continent that the line leaves in going toward Vancouver. But when a great continent like North America is spoken of as distinguished from a large island lying near it, the intervening cluster of smaller islands would, according to all geographical usage, be taken as included with the continent, and thus the channel of Haro divides the continent from Vancouver. But we will not waste words. Nobody can dispute that the Canal de Haro washes the eastern shore of Vancouver Island, and separates that island from the continent.
"AND THENCE SOUTHERLY."
The next words in the treaty are: "And thence southerly." The southerly deflection from the forty-ninth parallel is made to avoid cutting Vancouver Island, and must be limited to that object. The movement of the boundary line is steadily west to the Pacific. The treaty knows only two points of compass: “ westward” and this “southerly" deviation from the due west course. The southern deflection, therefore, must always be accompanied with the idea of a western direction; and of two channels going in a “southerly” direction, that which least interrupts the general “ westward” direction of the line must be chosen as the channel of the treaty.
[287 *6 THROUGH THE MIDDLE OF THE SAID CHANNEL AND OF FUCA'S
STRAITS TO THE PACIFIC OCEAN.”
The next words of the treaty are: “Through the middle of the said channel and of Fuca's Straits to the Pacific Ocean." The treaty contem. plates a continuous channel to the Pacific; the channel of Haro and Fuca's Straits form such a continuous channel, and a glance at the map will show that no other channel can pretend to do so.
So, then, the description of the treaty as a whole applies to no channel but that of Haro; and every single phrase, taken separately, points also to that channel, and to that channel alone.
" THE STRAITS OF ROSARIO."
And yet the British government ask the Imperial arbitrator to find the channel of the treaty in a passage for which, in January, 1848, they had no name and no other description than “ the wide channel to the east of numerous islands, which is laid down by Vancouver,” and which now, in 1871, they call by the name of the Rosario Straits."
My first request is that the Imperial arbitrator will ascertain where on the 15th of June, 1846, the day when the treaty was signed, the negotiators supposed Rosario Straits to lie. On that day the name “Straits of Rosario" was, on every map used by the negotiators, placed upon the waters which divide the island of Texada from the continent, far north
of the parallel of 490. There it lies fast anchored on the Map C.
map of Vancouver, published in 1798; it holds the same place in the atlas of the French translation of Vancouver. There, too,
it is found on the French map of Duflot de Mofras, pub
lished in 1844; and also on the map of Wilkes, published in 1845; and there, too, on the British map of Vancouver Island, pub.
lished by the geographer to the Queen, so late as 1848. Then, [297 since all British and American maps, which in 1846 *had on
them the name “Straits of Rosario," located those straits far to the
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