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November 5, 1878, a fresh Convention was signed, prolonging the Union for a further period of six years from January 1, 1880, and introducing some modifications into the terms of the agreement. In 1884 the Monetary Convention was denounced by all the contracting States. But on November 6, 1885, the Convention was renewed for a further period of five years from January 1, 1886.

CHAPTER XVI.

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY.

SECTION I.-PATENT LAWS.

See the Patents, Designs, and Trade Marks Act, 1883, for the United Kingdom ; the Patent Laws of France of July 5, 1884, Germany, July 1, 1877, Italy, January 31, 1864, and of the United States, June 22, 1874.

261. The Patent Law of any State has no force as such in any other State.

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262. A patent is a protection extended by the State to any of its own subjects for their exclusive use for a definite time, and on certain conditions, of any

useful invention or designs.

263. A patent is granted for a new manufacture, including an improvement in or addition to a manufacture, a machine, or instrument, or

chemical discovery, or anything which is substantial and new,

264. A patent may be also granted to the proprietor of any new or original design, the same being duly registered.

In the United Kingdom any person, whether a British subject or not, may make an application for a patent. In France a foreigner may obtain a patent of invention. In the United Kingdom an application must contain a declaration to the effect that the applicant is in possession of an invention, whereof he or, in the case of a joint application, one or more of the applicants claims or claim to be the true and first inventor or inventors, and for which he or they desires or desire to obtain a patent; and must be accompanied by either a provisional or complete specification. In the United Kingdom an invention means any manner of new manufacture. In France a patent is granted for every new discovery or invention in all departments of industry, for any new industrial product, new method, or new application of known methods for obtaining industrial results. In Germany a patent is granted for any new invention which can be turned to account in trade. In Italy an invention or discovery is said to belong to industry whenever its immediate product or result relates to industrial pursuits. Any instrument, machine,

tool, engine, or any mechanical arrangement; a process or method of manufacture; a motor or the application of any known power to industrial purposes ; and also the technical application of a scientific principle, can be the subject of a patent, provided immediate results in industry are obtained thereby. In the United States a patent is granted to any person who has invented or discovered any new and useful art, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof not known or used by others in the country.

265. A trade mark is any distinctive device, mark, brand, heading, label, ticket, or fancy words, or even a name of an individual, or form printed, impressed, or woven in some particular and distinct manner intended to mark or distinguish the goods or production of any

distinct person.

266. A trade mark may be registered for particular goods or classes of goods.

267. A trade mark, when registered, may be assigned and transmitted only in connection with the good-will of the business concerned in the particular goods or classes of goods for which it has been registered, and shall be determinable with that good-will.

268. By the British law it is provided that if Her Majesty should make any arrangement with the Government of any foreign State for mutual protection of inventions, designs, and trade marks, or any of them, then any person who has applied for protection for any invention, design, or trade mark in any such State shall be entitled to a patent for his invention, or to registration of his design or trade mark, as the case may be, in priority to other applicants; and such patent or registration shall have the same date as the date of the protection obtained in such foreign State, provided that his application is made, in the case of a patent, within seven months, and in the case of a design or trade mark, within four months, from his applying for protection in the foreign State with which the arrangement is in force.

SECTION II.-TREATY CLAUSES CONCERNING

INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY.

[International Convention between Belgium, Brazil, France, Guatemala, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Salvador, Spain, Servia, and Switzerland, signed at Paris, March 20, 1883. Ratification exchanged at

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