Understanding Cultures through Their Key Words: English, Russian, Polish, German, and Japanese
Oxford University Press, 07 օգս, 1997 թ. - 328 էջ
This book develops the dual themes that languages can differ widely in their vocabularies, and are also sensitive indices to the cultures to which they belong. Wierzbicka seeks to demonstrate that every language has "key concepts," expressed in "key words," which reflect the core values of a given culture. She shows that cultures can be revealingly studied, compared, and explained to outsiders through their key concepts, and that the analytical framework necessary for this purpose is provided by the "natural semantic metalanguage," based on lexical universals, that the author and colleagues have developed on the basis of wide-ranging cross-linguistic investigations. Appealing to anthropologists, psychologists, and philosophers as well as linguists, this book demonstrates that cultural patterns can be studied in a verifiable, rigorous, and non-speculative way, on the basis of empirical evidence and in a coherent theoretical framework.
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adjective amae Anglo attitude Australian Aboriginal languages Australian culture Australian English bastard bloody bugger bullshit characteristic chiacking close friends collocations component concept context dictionary discussion doesn’t don’t want drug druzja emotional English word enryo example explication expression fact Fatherland feel something bad freedom friendship German giri glosses Heimat human relations idea implies important Japan Japanese culture key words kind koledzy kolega language Lebra libertas liberty linguistic linked mateship meaning Morsbach natural semantic metalanguage noun obligation ofczyzna omoiyari one's one’s phrase podruga Poland Polish language political polysemy przyjaciel quoted refers reflected relationship rodina rodnye roughly Russian language Russian word seishin semantic sense sentences shared shout social society solidarity someone Soviet speak suggests svoboda Szlachta TAND tovarišč traditional Australian Vaterland volja want bad things want to say whereas whinge Wierzbicka wolność word friend yarn znajomi
Էջ 8 - We dissect nature along lines laid down by our native languages. The categories and types that we isolate from the world of phenomena we do not find there because they stare every observer in the face; on the contrary, the world is presented in a kaleidoscopic flux of impressions which has to be organized by our minds — and this means largely by the linguistic systems in our minds.
Էջ 8 - We cut nature up, organize it into concepts, and ascribe significances as we do, largely because we are parties to an agreement to organize it in this way — an agreement that holds throughout our speech community and is codified in the patterns of our language.