« ՆախորդըՇարունակել »
chased. The storage facilities should be managed by a person who is in charge of all receipts, storage, withdrawals, and related records. The receiving system should preclude the release of materials and parts to production until they have been satisfactorily processed through receiving inspection. The storage area should provide for orderly arrangement of all items which have been accepted by inspection, and which have been identified in such manner as to preclude inadvertent issuance of the wrong material or part. Particular attention should be given to the segregation and identification of items of similar appearances which have different physical characteristics. All defective or damaged materials and parts should be isolated in a separate, well defined and controlled area to preclude the installation of such materials or parts in the completed product. The storage system and facilities should specifically provide for the protection of materials subject to damage from abrasion, sunlight, temperature, moisture, grease, corrosion, etc.
(1) The applicant should maintain complete records of all materials and parts received, and their disposition, for at least two years to facilitate, where practicable, rechecking any particular lot of material in which defects may later be discovered. These records should include such information as source, source inspection, quantity (both accepted and rejected), vendors' affidavits, and/or reports indicating conformity with pertinent specifications.
(c) Production control. A production control system should be established to insure proper operation and processing of raw materials into the finished product. There should be an operation flow sheet or card showing the materials to be used, machine operations, treatment, fabrication processes, and quality control inspection and steps to be followed in production for all parts and assemblies to assure that the physical, dimen. sional, and functional characteristics comply with the type design data. The flow sheet or card should provide for recording the completion of each oper&tion, should accompany the part or assembly through each operation performed, and be a complete record of the manufacturing and inspection processes involved.
(1) Equivalent procedures may be employed, provided they preclude the in
stallation of unfinished, inferior, damaged or otherwise unsatisfactory parts in the completed products.
(d) Manufacturing facilities. The applicant should have sufficient housing to accommodate the necessary equipment and materials, and suitable working space for the performance of the work for which the production certificate is sought; suitable facilities for the proper storage, segregation, and protection of materials, parts, and supplies; and suitable means for the proper protection of parts and subassemblies during fabrication, production processing, inspection, and assembly. The amount and type of equipment required will depend upon the complexity of the product and the rate and volume of production.
(1) Provisions should be made to segregate or isolate processes which may adversely affect, or may be affected by, other operations. In the event that manufacturing processes are performed by an outside source, it is the responsibility of the applicant to determine the adequacy of such facilities and to assure that the results of the process are in conformity with the type design data and acceptable manufacturing techniques.
(e) Machining and forming. The fabrication of metal parts by various forming and machining operations should be adequately controlled to assure that the dimensions, finishes, radii, contours, etc., are in accordance with the pertinent drawings and established standards.
(f) Drawing and change control. The applicant should establish and currently maintain a technical data file system which will assure that the latest drawings and other engineering information are available and used by production and inspection personnel in performing their duties. The applicant should maintain a record of all changes to or deviations from the type design data; these records should be available for ready reference. The system should provide effective means for removal of obsolete information from all locations, and advance approval of deviations, substitutions, etc.
(g) Quality control. Additional policies pertaining to the "requirements for issuance" are contained in $$ 1.34-1 through 1.34–3. (CAM 1 Rev., 21 F. R. 8801, Nov. 14, 1956)
& 1.33 Location of manufacturing fa
cilities. No production certificate for a product shall be issued if the manufacturing facilities therefor are located outside the United States, unless where facilities are located outside the United States the Administrator finds that no undue burden on the Government is created in administering applicable requirements of the act or regulations issued thereunder. $ 1.33–1 Location of manufacturing fa.
cilities (FAA policies which apply to
8 1.33). Subsidiary manufacturers' facilities should be located within the United States, since it is not feasible to conduct the required inspections beyond these limits without placing undue burden on the FAA. (CAM 1 Rev., 21 F. R. 8801, Nov. 14, 1956] $ 1.34 Quality control.
The applicant shall show that he is adequately prepared to manufacture and control the quality of any product for which he requests production certification, so that each article shall conform with the design provisions of the pertinent type certificate. A product manufactured under a production certificate may be required to undergo inspection by a representative of the Administrator to determine whether the individual product conforms to the type design. $ 1.34–1 Quality control; general (FAA
interpretations which apply to
$ 1.34). (a) Section 1.34 is interpreted to mean that the applicant has established and can continue to maintain to the satisfaction of the Administrator an effective quality control system commensurate with the complexity of the type design, fabrication processes, and manufacturing techniques. The system must assure that acceptable quality is maintained throughout all phases of the manufacturing process from the time the materials are received until fabricated into the completed product, and provide a ready means for detection of significant discrepancies.
(b) The FAA will maintain general surveillance of the manufacturer's quality control system to ascertain that the
prime objectives of conformity, airworthiness, and safety are assured. (CAM 1 Rev., 21 F. R. 8801, Nov. 14, 1956] ICAM IR & 1.34–2 Quality control (FAA policies
which apply to § 1.34). The prime manufacturer's quality control and/or inspection organization should report to management, independent of the manufacturing division, because of the emphasis on safety and the need for unbiased judgment. The quality control department should recognize, and work to, established schedules, but be free of bias due to production pressure. All phases of inspection and control activity, from receiving raw material to delivery of the finished product, should be under a centralized control. If such an arrangement is not possible because certain departments are engaged in highly specialized work, these departments should operate under a separate inspection system, and their activities should be coordinated under the general supervision of a quality control organization. The same procedure should apply in the case of dispersed or branch facilities of a main organization when inspection activity is divided.
(a) Inspection. The inspection system should be so organized that parts and materials will receive appropriate inspection while in an inspectable condition. All parts fabricated by the prime manufacturer or subsidiary manufacturer and appliances obtained from any other source shall receive sufficient inspection to assure conformity with the type design data, pertinent specifications and approved manufacturing standards.
(1) Statistical methods. Any statistical sampling plan which provides assurance that the materials and parts incorporated in the finished product meet the prime objectives of conformity with drawings, airworthiness, and safety for operation, will be considered acceptable. Sampling inspection techniques that are employed by the manufacturer to determine the acceptability of materials and parts should be based on a careful analysis of the quality requirements of the product tailored to the individual factory on the basis of this analysis. It should not be a "prepackaged" program lifted bodily from another factory or from published literature.
(2) Control of materials and purchased parts. Materials should be inspected or tested to determine compli(i) Material obviously unfit for use or irreparable, should be disposed of in such manner as to preclude installation in the finished product.
(ii) Material not meeting requirements because of incomplete fabrication may be further processed by established methods to bring the material within specified requirements.
(iii) The FAA Aviation Safety Agent is authorized to approve certain variations or repairs found necessary after
ance with the applicable specifications. The tests may be conducted by the prime manufacturer, subsidiary manufacturer, or independent laboratories which are suitably equipped. In case the material is accompanied by an affidavit or test report identifiable with the material, such evidence may be considered satisfactory in lieu of actual tests conducted by the manufacturer.
(i) Purchased parts, components, and appliances over which the prime manufacturer does not have design control, should be inspected and tested by the prime manufacturer to the extent necessary to assure that the purchased item will perform properly its intended function in the completed product. Normally, extensive disassembly, testing to destruction, etc., will not be necessary.
(3) Fabrication inspection. The prime manufacturer should establish and maintain inspection stations at appropriate locations in the manufacturing process to assure continued control of the quality of parts, components, and assemblies. The manufacturer should assure that quality workmanship and dimensional and functional characteristics which may adversely affect safety are listed or referenced on shop travelers, routing cards, check lists, or other media for the guidance of inspection personnel. Procedures should be established for delivering parts to the inspection stations and for removing and storing inspected parts to assure that unacceptable or rejected parts will not be installed in the completed product.
(4) Process control. Processes such as welding, gluing, heat treatment, plating, X-ray, magnetic inspection, and penetrant inspection, including the equipment and operating personnel, should be closely controlled and performed in accordance with established specifications and procedures satisfactory to the FAA.
(5) Preliminary materials review. Materials may be accepted by preliminary materials review, provided that specific methods and procedures for acceptance have been defined and adopted as a result of previous Materials Review Board procedure. When material is first found by the manufacturer's inspectors to depart from the specification and/or drawings, the material should be properly identified, and may be given a preliminary review and disposed of by authorized manufacturer's personnel as follows:
(iv) All questionable materials to be considered for use in the finished product which cannot be disposed of by preliminary review action should be designated for Materials Review Board action.
(6) Materials Review Board procedures. The Quality Control Department should be responsible for the effective operation of the Materials Review procedure. The FAA factory agent will spot check materials, review dispositions, as necessary, to verify that the product consistently meets a satisfactory level of quality and conformity.
(i) The established materials review procedures should provide that:
(a) All materials, parts, and components which are damaged or do not conform to design data and specifications will be withheld and isolated.
(b) All items submitted to the Materials Review Board should be reviewed to determine whether such items may be used safely in their present condition, whether rework or repair is feasible, or whether scrapping is necessary.
(c) All items which are reworked or repaired in accordance with materials review dispositions will be reinspected for conformity therewith. Any item accepted after this inspection will thereafter be treated as an approved item.
(d) All items accepted through materials review action will be so identified.
(e) The Materials Review Board should maintain accurate records which will provide at least the following:
1 Effective operation of the Materials Review procedure should materially minimize discrepancies and errors which may otherwise become chronic, and furthermore, may serve as a yardstick by means of which the adequacy and acceptability of the production and quality control systems may be evaluated. However, the materials review system should not be used in place of the Inspection or quality control system to determine acceptability of parts and materials.
(1) Name, part number, date, and quantity of parts involved.
(2) The quantity of parts in the lot or order.
(3) Description of the discrepancy.
(4) The materials review disposition, including rework instructions, if any.
(5) The results of reinspection.
(ii) The Materials Review Board should not accept parts which deviate to the extent that mating is adversely affected. Parts or assemblies involving mating should conform to drawing tolerances to the extent that installation, removal, or replacement may be accomplished without misalignment or damage to other components. In assembling parts under these circumstances, no fabrication operations such as cutting, hammering, bending, prying, or forcing should be permitted, or, when final installation has been completed, the parts should not be temporarily or permanently subjected to deformation or distortion of a nature which would cause any undesirable tensions, compressions, stresses, or strains. Where deviating parts, in themselves, are found acceptable, they must not jeopardize the airworthiness or performance of other parts when installed in the assembly. In general, parts which do not conform with the approved technical data should not be accepted when such parts can be reworked to conform with the approved design data.
(7) Inspection records. The manufacturer should maintain adequate records of all inspections and tests performed. Such records as are applicable should be identifiable with the completed product or group of products. These records should be retained in the manufacturer's files for at least two years. All inspection records should be available for review by FAA representatives.
(8) Inspection status of parts. The manufacturer should indicate by means of stamps, tags, or other means, whether parts, components, and assemblies are to be accepted, rejected, or withheld for Materials Review Board action. The indication of inspection status may be applied to the individual parts, components, or assemblies; to the container of a group of like parts, components, or assemblies; or, to the shop traveler or routing card for the parts. Materials that are subjected to certain processes, such as heat treat, hardness test, pressure test, X-ray, etc., as required by the drawings or specification, should be iden
tified with a suitable process stamp. Such stamps, which are obliterated by subsequent processing, need not be reapplied if the manufacturer has satisfactory control of the finished parts. All parts inspected and approved should indicate, when practicable, the individual inspector responsible.
(9) Inspectors required. The number of inspectors should be sufficient to adequately check all materials, manufacturing processes, and the product to the extent necessary to provide reasonable assurance of conformity, quality, and acceptability of the finished product. Inspection personnel should be vested with sufficient authority to permit them to perform their assigned duties in a manner which will warrant the issuance or continuation of a production certificate, provided other requirements are complied with.
(10) Inspection tools and testing equipment. The manufacturer should provide and maintain suitable measuring and testing devices necessary to conduct all phases and types of inspection and tests essential to the continued production of duplicate products. Such devices should be checked at established periods to assure continued accuracy. The manufacturer should establish & schedule of such checks as a portion of his inspection procedure, based on type, purpose, and degree of usage, and should maintain records or other evidence that proper control is being maintained. The tools used by the production department in constructing the part, if used by inspection, should be periodically checked to determine that the results obtained are within approved tolerances and that conformity with approved design data is maintained.
(11) Inspection-subsidiary manufacturer. When parts, components, and assemblies over which the prime manufacturer retains design control are fabricated by a subsidiary manufacturer, they should undergo the same type and degree of inspection and testing as if fabricated by the prime manufacturer. If these items cannot be completely inspected when received at the prime manufacturer's facilities, inspections should be conducted at the subsidiary manufacturer's plant to assure that such items are acceptable for installation on the completed product. When items have been inspected at the subsidiary manufacturer's plant, the prime manufacturer should conduct a receiving inspec
tion to detect any damage resulting from transit.
(i) The prime manufacturer holds basic responsibility for the conformity, airworthiness, and acceptability of the finished product. Acceptance of a subsidiary manufacturer's quality control system by the FAA does not relieve the prime manufacturer of this responsibility. FAA inspections to be conducted at the subsidiary manufacturer's plant will be arranged through the prime manufacturer who should notify the authorized Aviation Safety Agent when the subsidiary's facilities are ready for FAA inspection. If these facilities and the quality control system are found acceptable, the subsidiary will be granted the same privileges regarding acceptance of items manufactured as though they were produced by the prime manufacturer. Prior to FAA approval of a subsidiary manufacturer's quality control system, parts and assemblies should be subjected to a complete inspection for conformity and quality at the prime manufacturer's plant, or arrangements should be made for suitable inspection at the subsidiary manufacturer's plant by the prime man ufacturer's inspection personnel and, as repaired, by FAA representative. Subsequent to the approval of the subsidiary manufacturer's quality control or inspection system, FAA representative will maintain general inspection surveillance at the subsidiary's facilities to ascertain that parts, assemblies, etc., produced are in conformity with the approved drawings and data forming the basis for the fabrication of the product.
(12) Final inspection and functional test. The completed product should be inspected for completeness and quality of workmanship. As a final check on the airworthiness of the completed product, each aircraft, aircraft engine, and variable pitch propeller produced under the terms of a production certificate will be subjected to the following tests:
(i) In addition to the manufacturer's production flight test, aircraft produced under a production certificate will be fight tested periodically by the FAA. (See $ 1.15–2 for flight authorization and 8 1.15–3 concerning logging flight test time.) The number or percentage of aircraft which will be flight tested by the FAA will be dependent upon the complexity and size of the aircraft, and upon experience gained while conducting functional and reliability tests of proto type and production aircraft prior to is
suance of the production certificate. The manufacturer should formulate a flight test schedule that is acceptable to FAA representatives conducting the tests.
(a) Aircraft may be delivered unassembled to an authorized distributor prior to initial assembly and flight test, provided the manufacturer will advise the distributor of the established fight test procedure and furnish him with copies of the approved flight test checkoff form. Flight test procedures employed by a distributor must be equivalent to those established by the manufacturer, and include the use of an identical flight test check-off form. These forms, when prepared by the manufacturer, will be filed as part of the aircraft inspection record, and, when prepared by a distributor, should be retained by him for at least two years.
(ii) Each aircraft engine, either reciprocating or turbine, produced under the terms of a production certificate should be subjected to a satisfactory test run consisting of a break-in run, which should include at least the determination of each engine's fuel and oil consumption and maximum power characteristics. These tests may be conducted with the engine appropriately mounted and utilizing the current types of power and/or thrust measuring equipment (i. e., integral torque meter, thrust meter, dynamometer, calibrated test club or propeller, reaction stand, etc.). Rocket type engines should be checked periodically by an established sampling technique. Sufficient internal examination of each engine should be accomplished to reasonably ascertain that no unsafe conditions exist.
(iii) Each variable pitch propeller produced under the terms of a production certificate should be subjected to a satisfactory functional test to determine that the propeller will operate properly throughout the normal range of operation, as a final check on its operational characteristics. (CAM 1 Rev., 21 F. R. 8801, Nov. 14, 1956) $ 1.34–3 Quality control; special pro
cedure (FAA policies which apply to
$ 1.34). (a) Standard empty weight and c.g. for production aircraft. The following procedure applies only to newly manufactured aircraft (except helicopters and transport category aircraft) which are produced under the terms of a production certificate.