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speeds in excess of this value were used in determining the runway lengths.
(d) Speed V, is defined as the minimum take-off climb speed and is the greater of the following: 1.15 times the power-off stalling speed with the filaps in the take-off position (assuming a fourengine airplane). 1.10 times the minimum control speed, Vmc.
(e) The minimum control speed, Vmc, is defined as the minimum speed at which the airplane is controllable in flight with the sudden failure of an outboard engine with take-off power on the remaining engines.
(f) All runway lengths given in this manual are based upon optimum V, speeds; i. e., the speed selected for y, is such that the accelerate-stop distance is equal to the distance to clear a fifty foot obstacle with one engine becoming inoperative at this speed. Consequently, V, varies with weight, altitude, wind, gradient, temperature, etc. Values for V, for the various conditions are given under subparagraph (2) of this paragraph.
(g) All take-off and landing distances are given for dry, concrete runways.
(h) If the maximum cross component wind velocity in which landings and takeoffs were demonstrated was not considered limiting, it should be included in this section of the manual. A typical example would be as follows: "The maximum crosswind component in which this airplane has been tested in 20 m. p. h. measured at a height of 50 feet above the ground. Consequently, in determin. ing the effective take-off and landing runway lengths, a crosswind component greater than this value may not be used.”
(2) Performance data. These data may be given in either graphical or tabular form and should cover the weight range and all airport and terrain altitudes at which the airplane is intended to be operated. The scale of the charts should permit accurate reading within approximately 0.25 of one percent. The following should be included:
(i) Airspeed calibration. This should be given for the normal and alternate static sources. Ground effect should be included for V, speed range. (A plot of CAS vs. IAS @ various flap positions, preferably on one page.)
(ii) Altimeter calibration. This should be given for the normal and alternate static source.
(iii) Stalling speeds. A table or diagram of calibrated stalling speeds at various weights at all authorized flap settings, power-off should be given.
(iv) Gross weight summary. A sum. mary of permissible operating landing and take-off gross weights as limited by the climb or structural requirements should be provided.
(v) Minimum take-off runway length. Unless optimum values of V, are selected, establishing equal distances to accelerate to speed V, and stop or to make a take-off over a 50-foot obstacle with the critical engine becoming in. operative at speed Vì, inclusion of both the accelerate-stop distance and runway length required to take-off and clear a 50-foot obstacle will be necessary. It is recommended that these data be given for a range of temperatures (see § 46.117) and runway gradients sufficient to permit proper dispatching under the rules of Part 40 of this subchapter, etc., in addition to the standard day temperature data.
(vi) Take-of information. Takeoff flight paths through the final climb segment, flight path slope or data supplementary to that obtained in subdivision (V) of this subparagraph that may be used for dispatching purposes should be included. These should be for the same range of temperatures (see $ 4b.117) and runway gradients as subdivision (V) of this subparagraph.
(vii) Minimum take-of climb speed, V2, This speed should be listed for the range of weights, altitudes and conditions covered in subdivisions (v) and (vi) of this subparagraph. The distance to accelerate to these speeds should also be included to provide data necessary for gradient problems involving runways with variable gradients of sufficient magnitude that average gradients cannot be assumed.
(viii) Critical engine failure speed, V,. This speed or speeds V. for the range of weights, altitudes and conditions coyered in subdivisions (v) and (vi) of this subparagraph if applicable should be given. The distances to accelerate to these speeds should also be included to provide data necessary for gradient problems involving runways with variable gradients of sufficient magnitude that average gradients cannot be assumed.
(ix) Maximum runway length required for landing. With respect to this item, the following data would be considered appropriate: Landing distance from height of 50 feet. Minimum effective landing runway length-scheduled stops. (See Part 40 of this subchapter.) Minimum effective landing runway length-alternate stops. (See Part 40 of this subchapter.)
(x) Wind effect in landing and takeop. If it is desired to take advantage of wind in determining landing and take-off distances all data should be based upon wind velocities reported at a height of 50 feet above the runway; i. e., the runway length would be calculated for one half of the reported headwind velocity, or one and one-half times the reported tailwind velocity, measured at a height of 50 feet corrected for wind gradient to the height of the center of aerodynamic drag of the airplane. A note clearly stating the above stipulations should be included in the manual.
(xi) Rates of climb and climbing speeds. These rates and speeds should be specified for the desired range of weights and altitudes, together with the corresponding airplane configuration (flay position, gear position, etc.), and should be given for the following when applicable:
(a) First segment take-off climb (§ 4b.120 (a)).
(b) Second segment take-off climb ($ 45.120 (b)).
(c) Third segment take-off climb (8 4b.116 (d)).
(d) Final segment take-off climb (§ 4b.116 (e)).
(e) One-engine inoperative en route climb ($ 4b.120 (c)).
(f) All engine en route climb (8 4b.119 (a)).
(g) Two-engine inoperative en route climb (§ 4b.121).
(h) Approach climb (8 4b.120 (d)). (i) Landing climb (§ 4b.119 (b)).
(xii) Engine power curve. A copy of the FAA approved power chart of BHP VS. MP @ RPM and BHP vs. altitude @ RPM and @ MP should be included.
(xiii) Performance charts. Any instructions or examples for use of the performance charts should be included.
(xiv) Removal of performance data, The Performance Section of the Airplane
Might Manual should not be removed from the Airplane Flight Manual. However, any tables, charts, etc., that an air carrier operator prepares which are based on airplane flight manual performance material for convenience in determination of load limitation data need not be carried in the Airplane Flight Manual even though approved by the FAA if the operator does not care to do so.
(e) Weight and balance data-(1) General. Inasmuch as it is desired to eliminate the necessity of submitting revisions of the Airplane Flight Manual to the FAA for approval whenever an item of equipment is altered or added, this section of the manual will not be included in the formally "approved" portion of the document. However, a note to the effect that the airplane should be operated in accordance with the approved loading schedule should be included in the Limitations Section. (See paragraph (b) (1) of this section.)
(2) Responsibility for control of weight and balance. It is the intention of the Federal Aviation Agency to place the responsibility for the control of weight and balance with the manufacturer and operator. The manufacturer will furnish a weight and balance report for each new airplane which may be included in the manual but not in the "approved" portion. The Federal Aviation Agency's representative will not approve each individual report but will make only occasional spot checks to ascertain that the manufacturer's weight control procedure is adequate. The manufacturer will be expected to furnish complete information with the airplane not only regarding its actual weight and balance, but also to include sketches, samples and other data that will assist the operator in checking the balance after alterations.
(3) Conventional airplanes. The following material is believed to be complete and adequate for a conventional airplane,
(i) Weight limits. A list and explana. tion (where necessary) of the various weight limits should be given.
(ii) C. G. Limits. The approved operating C. G. range should be specified.
(iii) Empty weight and empty weight. C. G. location.
(iv) Equipment list. All equipment included in the empty weight should be listed.
(v) Weight computations. The computations necessary to determine the empty weight C. G. location, including identification of balance datum should be shown.
(vi) Loading schedule.
(vii) Loading schedule instructions. Complete instructions in the use of the loading schedule should be provided.
(4) Unconventional airplanes. In the case of unconventional airplanes or airplanes with special features, the information specified in subparagraph (3) of this paragraph should be modified or amplified as necessary to cover the case.
(f) Supplements. As a general rule, when major alterations are made by an operator (or owner) to an airplane involving appreciable changes to the Airplane Flight Manual it is advisable for the operator to prepare a separate supplement to the original manual under his own name covering the items that are different from the original manual. Then subsequent revisions to the manual by the manufacturer or operator will pertain only to their respective portions of the manual and should eliminate possible confusion
(g) Submittal. Three copies of the above material, less the Weight and Balance Data Section, should be submitted to the appropriate Federal Aviation Agency regional office by the applicant for an original approval. The three copies will be signed by the regional Chief, Aircraft Division; one copy will be returned to the applicant, one will be forwarded to the Washington office and the other retained by the regional office. A single copy of the title page to be used for Chief's signature may be substituted for the applicant's copy if desired. In cases where the revisions to the manual are of primary importance to safety in flight, the pertinent Aircraft Specification will contain a description of the change to ensure that all manuals are revised. A revision of this type would usually be the subject of an Airworthiness Directive note. One copy of the Weight and Balance Section should be included in the manual by the applicant for each airplane at the time of certification [Supp. 14, 16 F. R. 1052, Feb. 6, 1951, as amended by Supp. 24, 19 F. R. 4446, July 20, 1954; Supp. 89, 23 F.R. 7482, Sept. 26, 1958]
$ 46.740_2 Reverse thrust operating
limitations and procedures (FAA
policies which apply to § 4b.740). The policies outlined in § 4b.402–1(b) will apply. (Supp. 25, 20 F. R. 2281, Apr. 8, 1955] $ 46.741 Operating limitations.
(a) Air-speed limitations. The following air-speed limitations shall be included together with sufficient information to permit the presentation of the air-speed limitations to the flight crew in accordance with $4b.732:
(1) The never-exceed speed (see $ 46.711);
(2) The normal operating limit speed (see $ 46.712), together with a statement to the effect that normal flight operations should be confined to speeds below this value, and a further statement to the effect that the range of speeds between the normal operating limit speed and the never-exceed speed should be entered with caution and with due regard to the prevailing flight and atmospheric conditions;
(3) When an air-speed limitation is based upon compressibility effects, a statement to this effect, together with information as to any symptoms, the probable behavior of the airplane, and the recommended recovery procedures;
(4) The maneuvering speed (see $ 4b.210 (b) (2)), together with a statement to the effect that full application of rudder and aileron controls as well as those maneuvers which involve angles of attack near the stall should be con. fined to speeds below this value;
(5) The flap extended speed (see $ 46.714), together with a description of the pertinent flap positions and engine powers;
(6) The landing gear operating speed (see § 46.715), together with a statement to the effect that this is the maximum speed at which it is safe to extend or retract the landing gear;
(7) The landing gear extended speed (see & 4b.716), if greater than the landing gear operating speed, together with a statement to the effect that this is the maximum speed at which the airplane can be flown safely with the landing gear in the extended position.
(b) Powerplant limitations. Information shall be included to outline and to explain all powerplant limitations (see 46.718) and to permit marking the instruments as required by $$ 46.734 through 4b.736.
(c) Weight and loading distribution. The airplane weights and center of gravity limits required by $8 46.101 and 4b.102 shall be included, together with the items of equipment on which the empty weight is based. Where the variety of possible loading conditions warrants, instructions shall be included to facilitate observance of the limitations.
(d) Flight load acceleration limits. The positive maneuvering limit load factors for which the airplane structure has been proven shall be described in terms of accelerations, together with a statement to the effect that these accelerations limit the angle of bank in turns and limit the severity of pull-up maneuvers.
(e) Flight crew. The number and functions of the minimum flight crew determined in accordance with $ 46.720 shall be described.
(f) Type of operation. The type(s) of operating(s) shall be listed for which the airplane and its equipment installations have been approved. (See $ 46.721.)
(g) Maximum operating altitude. The altitude established in accordance with $ 46.722 shall be included, together with an explanation of the limiting factors. (15 F.R. 3543, June 8, 1950, as amended by Amdt. 46–8, 23 F.R. 2591, Apr. 19, 1958) § 46.742 Operating procedures.
(a) Normal. Information and instructions shall be included regarding peculiarities of starting and warming the engines, taxiing, operation of wing flaps, landing gear, automatic pilot, etc.
(b) One engine inoperative. The recommended procedure shall be described to be followed in the event of engine failure, including minimum speeds, trim, operation of remaining engine(s), oper. ation of flaps, etc.
(c) Propeller feathering. The recommended procedure shall be described to be followed in stopping the rotation of propellers in flight.
(d) Restarting of turbine engines. The recommended procedures to be followed in restarting turbine engines in flight shall be described. These procedures shall include the effects of altitude.
(e) Emergency procedures. Recommended emergency procedures shall be described to be followed in the event of are, decompression, ditching, etc. (15 F.R. 3543, June 8, 1950, as amended by Amdt. 46–8, 23 F.R. 2391, Apr. 19, 1958) § 4b.743 Performance information.
(a) Performance data. A summary of all pertinent performance data shall be given, including the performance data necessary for the application of the operating rules of this subchapter, together with descriptions of the conditions, air speeds, etc., under which these data were determined.
(b) Flap controls. Instructions shall be included describing the use and ad. justment of the flap controls necessary to obtain the performance referred to in paragraph (a) of this section.
(c) Air speeds. The indicated air speeds corresponding with those determined for take-off shall be listed together with the procedures to be followed in the event the critical engine becomes inoperative during take-off (see $ 46.742 (b)).
(d) Miscellaneous. An explanation shall be included of any significant or unusual flight or ground handling characteristics.
CROSS REFERENCE: For Special Civil Alr Regulations applicable to turbine-powered transport category airplanes of current design in lieu of the requirements contained in $ 46.743, see SR-422, SR-422A, and SR422B, supra.
AIRPLANE IDENTIFICATION DATA s 46.750 Identification plate.
A fireproof identification plate shall be securely attached to the structure in an accessible location where it will not likely be defaced during normal service. The identification plate shall not be placed in a location where it might be expected to be destroyed or lost in the event of an accident. The identification plate shall contain the identification data required by $ 1.50 of this subchapter. [15 F. R. 3543, June 8, 1950, as amended by Amdt. 46–1, 15 F. R. 8904, Dec. 15, 1950) § 46.751 Identification marks.
The nationality and registration marks shall be permanently affixed in accordance with $ 1.100 of this subchapter. (15 F. R. 3543, June 8, 1950, as amended by Amdt. 46–1, 15 F. R. 8904, Dec. 15, 1950)