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is one which might and ought Government by fervid orators to have been avoided. All and frequent elections,—no Minare agreed that the Majuba istry has the nerve to take a capitulation has much to resolute step, the immediate answer for. But what have necessity of which is not successive Governments of this apparent to the average voter, country during the last decade however imperative it may be been about in allowing the for the purpose of warding off growth of this great mil- future peril, even of an overitary Power in

in the

the midst whelming magnitude. And of one important portion of great as the peril has been, it the empire. If we did not might have been still greater. know of its growth to these It is nothing to be proud of portentous dimensions, we ought that such a race as these Boers to have known. These heavy should have hemmed us in for cannon and war material have weeks and even months at all been carried in ships, and Mafeking, Kimberley, and Ladyhave been landed either in smith. But what if they had

. Delagoa Bay or at the ports succeeded altogether, and carried of Cape Colony. Why was out their plan of campaign, and our Government in ignorance left to us the task of reconquest of them, as Lord Wolseley of the whole dominion ? We has confessed. Or if they have been within measurable were not in ignorance, why distance of that overwhelming was their disembarkation or calamity; and we owe the risk transit allowed ? They could of it principally to President only be intended against a Kruger and his associates, but State which had suzerain partly to the inherent

weakness rights to preserve, and was of our system of popular and responsible for the peace of party Government, very advanSouth Africa ; and if stopping tageous in many respects, but them was an act of war, it frequently defective for the was as justifiable a cause of purpose of securing to us an war as the closing of the Vaal efficient and far-seeing policy drifts encroachment on abroad. It seems to us most neighbouring territory.

unsatisfactory that the British It must be recognised that public should wake up in the the conduct of President Kruger year 1899 to find that for years and his associates, which no past a great catastrophe has successors must be allowed to been in course of preparation, imitate, is a main reason why steadily persevered in with perno resettlement of South Africa sistent malignity, and that the will be satisfactory which allows appointed guardians of the emthe establishment of indepen- pire have as steadily neglected, dent States, Boer or other, either from the faults of their freed from British control. A Intelligence Department, or from second reason of hardly less supine indifference to peril, to importance is, that under our take the necessary precautions. system of party Government, - Nothing whatever has been


done in past years to nip the by anything short of their comgrowing peril in the bud; but plete subjection to the British at least

we have to congratulate Crown. We had better_quit ourselves that the very efficient South Africa altogether than Government of India despatched leave within its Jimits, under with the utmost speed a few the guise of independence, the thousand troops to Natal, which, nucleus of another hostile State with the aid of marines and free to become, under British guns from a man-of-war, was neglect, another formidable foe able to stem the invasion; and to British dominion. We should also that at a distance of more be rash beyond description if than 6000 miles the necessary

we trusted the Boers' moderamilitary preparations were more tion and prudence; we should be or less advanced.

unwise if we cast upon British The moral of it all, as far as Administrations in the future future policy is concerned, is the duty of continued watchfulthat we owe it to the security ness, and, further, of opportune and safety of our empire that interference, by any decisive this experience shall not have action. The whole genius of to be repeated. Fortunately popular government forbids any public opinion is thoroughly hope that that duty would be aroused, and we hope and discharged. believe has decided that, at Further, are the probable rewhatever cost in men, money,

sults of the overthrow of these and effort, there shall be an end two republican Governments to Boer domination and Boer such as to make any reasonschemes of hostility from the able man reluctant to have Zambesi to the Cape. The them displaced ? It seems to us whole of this vast expedition that not merely for the reasons will have been thrown away if already given is that overthrow any vestige of an independent within our right and duty, Boer State remains as a nucleus but that overpowering necesfor disaffection and hostility to sity constrains us to make our rule. If Boer power and every effort in that behalf, for resources can grow in twenty- the alternative is a humiliation two years to their present pitch, before the whole civilised world from 1877, when they had which we cannot afford to un12s. 6d. in their treasury, were dergo. It is satisfactory to rewithout machinery of govern- flect that there are

no subment, and

imploring stantial reasons why the Boers annexation as the price of should have so stoutly obpreservation from destruction jected to become British subat the hands of Zulus and jects. Their interests are preKaffirs, to 1899, when they cisely the same as those of the claim, as the greatest military English, their rights and duties Power in South Africa, to turn would be the same; they would the English out and substitute be sure to have either at once their own ascendancy, it would or eventually, as inhabitants be madness to conclude this war of an English colony, the same


constitutional methods as other stern repression of the aims white subjects of making their and wishes of the progressives grievances, their wishes, and amongst them, the military interests known, and of having tyranny, the enforced service them secured and safeguarded. in the field, with its losses of The only objections to it are life and its desolation, all for the sentimental ones of dis- no practical, as distinguished like to civilisation and its from a sentimental, good—will restraints. But experience will be forced to the conclusion have shown them that they that they have profited by cannot get away from those re- the change. straints. From the time of Sir But it is when we turn from Bartle Frere downwards it has them to the white colonists been observed that the more that we perceive the absolute experienced, the more educat- impossibility of again falling ed, and the more progressive short of the obligations of amongst them have the least empire. With the whole civilrepugnance to life under the ised world looking on, and British flag. Those who are after having made gigantic still untouched by civilisation, efforts and sacrifices, we canwhose experience for two cen- not terminate this contest

turies_of a solitary pastoral without providing the British life. has given to them an and other white inhabitants absolute incapacity for

com- of South Africa security from merce and industrial pursuits, further inroads and hostilities who belong to a past age, and by their troublesome neighare utterly ignorant of the bours.Confidence in British modern world, its social in- power must

power must be established : stitutions, relations, and poli- it cannot and must not be tics, are the men who most again betrayed. The Orange tenaciously cling to an inde- Free Staters were abandoned pendence, which means to them by Lord Aberdeen, the Transthe being let alone, immunity vaal inhabitants, white and from all claims of their fellow- black, were abandoned by Mr creatures. But these men, in Gladstone. The colony of Natal a well-ordered State, will nec- also has its claims. It shared essarily be a declining force. in the general disaster caused The better class amongst them, by the Majuba capitulation. when they contrast the in- When Zulu power was creasing prosperity and social thrown, in no small degree order which British govern- owing to the help given by ment always brings in its Natal, the Boers were allowed, train, and the liberties which of course by Mr Gladstone's it secures, with the state of Government, to raid over all things which has existed since northern Zululand and there 1881—the constant unrest, the to establish an independent ascendancy of a tyrannical old republic, the union of which man and his Hollander asso- with the Transvaal was accomciates, the public plunder, the plished in 1887.


But not merely that. Natal pensation rather than neglect. has borne the chief brunt of Probably confiscations of the the disastrous neighbourhood of properties of disloyal subjects, a hostile and encroaching Power. and charges on the Transvaal It must have been the conscious- revenues, will form an adequate ness of the impossibility of living fund for that purpose ; and if a under or in relations with the regular and civilised governTransvaal Government which ment is established in the has kept Natal so loyal to the Transvaal, her neighbour will mother-country, for she has had attain to a prosperity in which little cause for gratitude. It is she will necessarily share, both Natal which, directly war broke from extended markets for her out, had to bear the brunt of farmers and an increased carrythe war and to feel the full ing trade over her roads and force of our inadequate pre- railways. The special correparations. Nevertheless, the spondent of the 'Times' recently colony at once and without drew attention to her claims hesitation threw in its lot and the grounds on which they with the Imperial Government, rest.

" What

Natal wants assisted it in every way, and above all,” he says,

“is such an sent a powerful body of vol- addition to her limited territories unteers—a large proportion, in as will afford an opportunity for fact, of her male population - her expansion in the future, and to the battlefield. Her carry- when the dominion of South ing trade to the Transvaal-a Africa is at some future date chief source of her revenue- realised, will secure her influence has in consequence been arrested, in its councils which she has so and her sufferings have been well merited in her stormy halfgreat from her territory having century of existence.” The been made the scene of war, encroachments of the Boers and her farmers exposed to the will have to be cancelled, and raiding attacks of the Boers. Swaziland, together with pieces These sacrifices and services of the Transvaal and the Free place her in a position of a State, be given to Natal, which valuable ally, who cannot be has in the past and present deserted and left to the tender established claims upon us, mercies of her exasperated and will in time to come be neighbours without mortal in- an important constituent of jury to the credit and honour the future settlement. of the empire. Fortunately the But our present consideration arrival of Indian troops pre- is the impossibility of contemvented her from undergoing plating any other result to this immediate subjection and an- war than the establishment of nexation by the Boers; but it British supremacy in South did not prevent the whole of Africa, at whatever cost in men, the northern territories from arms, and money. It is always being subjected to all the the tendency of war to become horrors and miseries of war. unpopular as time goes on ; but Her claim is manifest to com- we trust that the general public


If we

has so completely grasped the the side of the British. They full bearings of the situation, have never had considerate that they will resolutely persist treatment at the hands of the in the present struggle until Boers, who evidently regard the only result is attained which them with the contempt and is consistent with the security disdain natural to a race which of the empire, our debt to those is physically stronger, but in who have fallen, and the claims point of intellect and mental of our loyal colonies and colon- cultivation is little if at all ists. We have had reverses in superior. The Boers' one mode the course of this struggle, and of dealing with the natives we may have some more, but in the Transvaal, over and there must be no faltering in above the usual mode of politthe accomplishment of our pur- ical oppression, is to raise pose. We cannot afford to fail. revenue from deleterious The interests which we repre- drink which they encourage sent will not admit of another them to consume, knowing concession to the Boers.

that it utterly incapacitates make any settlement with them them. on any other terms than our Mr Bryce says that the recognised ascendancy, we shall more thoughtful men in the have to fight it out all over colonies agree in the magniagain, possibly on worse terms, tude of the issues which are and with a still more powerful involved in the native problem. foe; the only other alternative They hold “that the three being, in the terms of the ulti- chief things to be done now matum, to quit South Africa. are to save the natives from In the present war, at all events, intoxicating liquor, which inhaving regard to those terms, jures them more than no foreign Power could attempt it does the whites; to enact to intervene as a friend. Inter- good land laws, which shall vention would be tantamount keep them from flocking as to a declaration of hostility, a loafing proletariate into the especially after Lord Salisbury's towns, as well as just labour speech at the Guildhall; and laws; and to give them much whatever temporary successes better opportunities than they the Boers may achieve, under now have of industrial educaconditions favourable to their tion.” It would be in vain to peculiar methods of warfare, expect that this great native all will admit that we are un- problem could ever be solved or disputed masters of the ocean helped to a solution by the ways.

blundering incapacity which in Further, there is the great the Transvaal drove an indusquestion of the future of the trious, prosperous, revenue-conblack population, which is not tributing population like the allowed to take part in this Uitlanders to a frenzy of discontest, but whose

sympa- content and rebellion by sheer thies are, there is every reason perversity of mismanagement. to believe, very generally on Slavery or extermination would


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