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be the expedient of the Trans- formerly by slavery, and in vaal Boer; and when we con- later years by disallowing the

; sider the engagements, tacit or native to buy land, and utterly expressed, which we have in the neglecting his intellectual and course of a century entered into spiritual needs.” The fears ex. with the black population, pressed in the home press on forming the tie of a sovereign every reverse to the British

a race to a subject population, arms that the Cape Dutch will we must recognise in their in- rise, may be tempered by the terests and political future one reflection that if they do there of many considerations which is a vast native population on forbids the acquiescence of the our side, whom at present it British people in any failure of is right as well as politic the great purpose of this war. to restrain from hostilities.

The Bishop of Zululand re- “Speaking for the Zulus,” cently sent to the London says the writer, “I believe

“ *Spectator' a letter written by that if any emergency arise an educated native to the in which England would be *Natal Mercury, expressing willing to put their loyalty what the bishop declares is the to the test, they would respond opinion of the greater number with readiness and enthusiasm of the native people, whether equal to that with which they educated or uneducated, in his fought under Cetywayo, only part of South Africa. The fighting then under the British writer says the natives are flag.” It is these Zulus whom loyal to British rule in recog. Sir Bartle Frere crushed in the nition of England's just policy interests of the Boers; it was towards them; because they terror of them which led to

more impressed by Eng. the Boer cession of the Transland's justice in peace even vaal to us in exchange for than by her prowess in war. protection; it

protection; it was their anThey refuse, he says, to avail nihilation at Ulundi which led themselves of this supreme

this supreme to the Boer demand for retroopportunity to rise and hurl cession. To this day it is conthemselves on the defenceless tended by many that the Zulu Cape, on Natal, and on Rhodesia.

a mistake of Sir “ There is an almost universal Bartle Frere's. hope," he says, “that the Im- This native question is one of perial arms will be victorious; the most urgent in the whole of and that a Government which, South Africa. The native popuby its inhumanity and relent- lation is more than four times less injustice, and apparent in- the amount of the white popuability to see that the native lation. It does not die out as has any rights a white man in America, North and South, in should respect, has forfeited its Canada, Australia, and New Zeaplace among the civilised Gov- land. Only Bushmen and Hoternments of the earth; and tentots disappear. The remainshould therefore be deprived of ing native races are sturdy, grow power so scandalously abused- swiftly by natural increase, and




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are reinforced by a steady stream ultimate determination of an of immigration from beyond the issue in which they are Zambesi and even from British vitally interested. We trust India,

,—a stream which will in that the issue will be confined all probability increase as time within the present limits, and goes on and the roads Cape that the home Government will wards, by rail or water, are be left to settle it with the two multiplied. Such a question republics, without directly sumwill task the powers of respon- moning to the conflict a portion sible government, even when a even of the native regiments Government is alive to its re- in India. But whatever may sponsibility, and has had vast happen, however many reverses experience in dealing with sub- or difficulties may be before ject and conflicting races. It us, the question raised by the is impossible that such a ques- Boer ultimatum must be fought tion can be abandoned by out to the bitter end. The us,

without grave derelic- struggle cannot, with any retion of duty, to the Boers. gard to the safety either of From first to last in their pro- South Africa or of the British ceedings there is no trace of empire, be compromised. It any enlightened aims, or of any can only be terminated by the conscious capacity for the work establishment of British power of administration, which to the over the two republics, for the Anglo-Saxon is a trade which sole and sufficient reason that he learns by instinct. All that we cannot be conterminous in they have done hitherto is to South Africa with a Power which import a worthless Hollander is at the same time of great clique, with brains, no doubt, military strength always availbut without character, who able on the spot, and also for all have fattened on corruption, purposes of government wholly exploited the Uitlanders, and uncivilised. If the issue at forced upon the Boers a mili- stake was one of freedom, if tary tyranny culminating in the Boers were people rightly their staking their lives and struggling to be free, one would their independence in the hope say that if a whole nation

a of stemming the tide of civilisa- down to boys of sixteen is willtion which they are too much ing to take the field and fight it of savages to appreciate. out for that end, their deter

Notwithstanding the gravity mination should be respected of the native question, it is the and their freedom allowed. But white question which is now the this is not a fight for freedom. predominant one—the question The whole history of the Orange who is to rule in South Africa, Free State for half a century Boer or Briton. The native shows that Great Britain never question is kept at present in wanted to interfere with its the background; though it is freedom. Nor does she want difficult to believe that a vast to interfere with the freedom resident population can be ex- of the Transvaal or to take cluded from all voice in the over its government and ad





ministration. This war arises ent greater resources in men, because the Transvaal has arms, and money, and of the raised, and induced the Orange isolated position of State to join in raising, con- tagonist, cut off while hostilities trary to the tenor of its past last from all except surreptihistory and to its present in- tious communications by sea. terests, the flag of tyranny,

flag of tyranny, We trust that there will be no corruption, and of deadly hatred paltering at any time with the and animosity to this country. tremendous issue which lies beIt wants to establish_ a dom- fore us. It is a struggle which ination over the two British we believe will collapse at no colonies, and -even over the distant period from the exhausOrange Free State, and to eject tion of our foe. the authority of Great Britain. But we must not rely on

The only alternative to our as- that. We have, unfortunately, cendancy being completely vin- foes at home in the shape of dicated is our retirement from a Little Englander party, the the country, and with it the growing dissatisfaction which relaxation of our hold on other will result from a long war, the portions of our empire, which relaxation of national resolve. means our decline in the scale We must put forward all our of nations. Any compromise strength; and if there is some which left to the Transvaal sense of indignity, a latent feelthe semblance of independence, ing that the occasion is not would enable it to begin all worthy of the effort, we at all over again the work of creating events escape the imputation of a great military Power, with being a strong Power oppressan accumulation of war mate- ing a weak one. That idea has rial and the pursuit of war ma- vanished. We are confronted chinations which we could not in this war by a foe of unexinterfere with, except by the pected strength and resources, renewal of hostilities on a still under circumstances which renlarger scale. We must battle der it of literally vital importit out now or never. To com

ance that we should prevail ; promise would be to abandon and we must, at whatever cost, all the advantages of our pres- stick to it till we do.

Printed by William Blackwood and Sons.

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“LE feu est tout, le reste Battles being won and lost, n'est rien.” So spoke that ab- and the fate of nations dependsolute master of war, Napoleon. ing, under God, on this same Such words a hundred years fire so eulogised by Napoleon, ago were rather more apposite I propose, at this time of nato a genius, a seer, a prophet, tional stress, when all thoughts than to the eagle-eyed general are following those who are so who had personally proved nobly contending for the emagain and again the power of pire, to set forth as briefly as I l'arme blanche in the hands of certain facts explaining his trusty veterans. But the and illustrating the nature, time has now come when these character, and properties of the words may be taken as soberly projectiles used at the present stating an undoubted and in- day. controvertible fact. Slowly but The first point to which it surely the missile, which always is necessary to call attention is, had its place in war as long as that there is no special scienwar has existed, has asserted tific mystery veiling the beits ascendancy until it liter- haviour and effect of the ally occupies the whole field. modern fire-impelled projectile. Whether or no cold steel will It is quite true that its energy ever lose its moral power is not is imparted to it by blazing for me to prophesy, but none gases,

which start it on its jourwill deny that its material ney with much noise, flame, , effect in battle has practically and shock; but the flight of the passed away.

most modern shell or bullet has VOL. CLXVII.-NO. MXII,


very much in common with his forehead, and he fell upon that of the smooth stone which, his face to the earth.” impelled by the muscular force Of course all these three conof the shepherd lad of Beth- siderations are interdependent. lehem, was the immediate means The effective range is governed of the death of Goliath, and by the attainable accuracy and the deliverance of the sorely by the energy remaining at the tried Israelites, thousands of end of the flight. The necesyears ago. Moreover, a fair sary accuracy depends in great understanding of the whole measure on the energy of the matter is not beyond the com- projectile. Had David had at his pass of the ordinary man in disposal a more powerful missile, the street, provided that he is capable of piercing the Philismade aware of certain control- tine's armour, such precise acling facts.

curacy would not have been In the sacred narrative of necessary,--he need not have the death of Goliath we have hit the unprotected forehead. three essential facts with refer- Again, with greater accuracy ence to the projectile which he might have slung his stone David used, which facts apply from a greater distance, always with equal force to the fighting supposing the striking energy material of the present day. to be sufficient to bring the We read, David ran to meet the Philistine to the earth; and so Philistine-that is to say, he the problem may be infinitely took up a range suitable to the varied. missile that he was using. He But now, as in David's time, did not waste his energies by the three desiderata in attackattempting to obtain an effecting an enemy by the use of proat an impossible range - nor jectiles are long range, accudid he come unnecessarily close : racy, great effect.

There are at the right distance he took a of course other considerations, stone and slang it. The first such as rapidity of discharge, and all - important point in which is, however, closely allied fighting with missiles in all to accuracy, because an inacages is the distance at which curate weapon may compensate they can be effectively used. for its inaccuracy by the rapidity

The second point is the neces- with which it delivers its prosity of so controlling the missile jectiles. Again, mobility is of that it will strike the mark the first importance, otherwise intended. “David smote the it may not be possible to engage Philistine in his forehead.” Of the enemy when and where desupreme importance is the sired, or to avoid his assault accuracy of the aim.

when it is advisable to do so. But neither a proper choice of Nor is the moral effect to be the range nor accuracy of aim despised. A battle is lost, not will produce any material result because so many on the losing unless the projectile has the side are killed or wounded, but energy necessary for its deadly because those left alive and fit work, “The stone sank into for fighting are demoralised :

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