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Captain Denis Mulligan, Office of the Chief, United States Army

Air Corps; 11
Edward C. Sweeney, J.D., Attorney, General Counsel's Office,

Civil Aeronautics Board, Department of Commerce.

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The International Technical Committee of Aerial Legal Experts was created as a result of a resolution adopted at the First International Conference on Private Aerial Law, which met in Paris on October 27, 1925. The Experts' Committee was organized for the purpose of developing a comprehensive code of private aerial law through the adoption of international conventions on various subjects of private aerial law. The first session of the Committee was held in Paris in May 1926, and the Committee has held annual sessions since that time.

The preliminary draft conventions are prepared by four commissions, which are in effect subcommittees established by the Committee. Sessions of one or more of the four commissions are held during the first half of the year and again during the second half. The annual meeting of the full Committee usually takes place immediately following the sessions of the commissions which are held during the second half of the year. Between the annual sessions of the Committee much of the work of the commissions is done through correspondence between the experts of the Committee and the reporters of the commissions. This work includes the answering of questionnaires in connection with the preparation of draft conventions.

When draft conventions on given subjects have been adopted by the appropriate commissions, they are referred to the International Technical Committee of Aerial Legal Experts for consideration. If approved by the Committee, the drafts are afterward considered at a general international conference on private aerial law called for the purpose of taking definitive action on the drafts. Four such conferences (“diplomatic conferences") have been held: The first in Paris in 1925, the second in Warsaw in 1929, the third in Rome in 1933 (Conference Series 17, p. 20), and the fourth in Brussels in 1938 (Conference Series 45, p. 33).

The United States participates in the work of the Committee as a result of the enactment by Congress of Public Resolution 118, ap

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Captain Mulligan was assigned to the Office of the Chief of the Air Corps on December 30, 1940.

*More commonly referred to as the CITEJA, from the initials of the French name of the Committee, "Comité International Technique d'Experts Juridiques Aériens".

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proved February 14, 1931 (46 Stat. 1162). This resolution authorized the annual appropriation of funds to pay the share of the United States in the expenses of the Committee. Public Act 254, approved August 7, 1935 (49 Stat. 540), authorized an annual appropriation to include funds not only for the payment of the share of the United States in the expenses of the Committee but also to make possible participation in the meetings of the commissions established by the Committee. This authorization was to remain in effect until June 30, 1941, but Public Act 254 was so amended by Public Resolution 80, approved June 11, 1940 (54 Stat. 263), as to remove the time-limit, and the authorization for an annual appropriation is now on an indefinite basis.

For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941 the sum of $6,745 was appropriated by Congress to defray the cost of American participation in the activities of the Committee (54 Stat. 188).

INTERNATIONAL PENAL AND PENITENTIARY COMMISSION 13

(Organized 1872; reorganized 1880) Offices: Bern, Switzerland. American Commissioner: Sanford Bates, LL.D., President, Federal

Prison Industries, Inc., Department of Justice, New York, New York.14

The International Penal and Penitentiary Commission is the permanent executive body of the international prison congresses. It was organized at the first congress held in London in 1872 under the chairmanship of the American Commissioner, Dr. E. C. Wines, who became its first President.

Penal legislation, identification systems, juvenile delinquency, juvenile courts, extradition of criminals, construction and administration of prisons, etc., have been made the subjects of world-wide study, and the Commission is the medium through which all this work passes. The Commission is composed of specialists in penology from each adhering country. The prison congresses are divided into four sections: penal legislation, prison administration, preventive means, and questions relating to children and minors. The Commission is governed by regulations drawn up at the Stockholm Congress of 1878, adopted at the Paris Congress of 1880, confirmed at the Congress held at Bern in 1886, and subsequently revised at the Bern Congresses of 1926 and 1929.

* Formerly called the International Prison Commission.

* Dr. Bates was Executive Director of the Boys' Clubs of America, New York, New York, until his resignation on September 26, 1940.

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Money for the contribution of the United States was first appropriated in 1881 (21 Stat. 455), and the United States is authorized, by the act making appropriations for the Diplomatic and Consular Service for the fiscal year 1914 (37 Stat. 692), to contribute an annual sum toward the administrative expenses of the Commission and to pay the expenses of a Commissioner to represent it on the Commission. For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941 the sum of $4,332 was appropriated by Congress for these purposes (54 Stat. 188).

PERMANENT INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF ROAD CONGRESSES

(Resolution of the First International Road Congress, 1908; Public Resolution

37 of June 18, 1926; 15 Public Act 22 of March 22, 1935 16)

Offices : Paris, France.

PERMANENT INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION

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American Members:
A. W. Bohlen, President, American Association of Motor Vehicle

Administrators, Columbia, South Carolina ; 17
Wilburn Cartwright, of Oklahoma, Chairman, Committee on

Roads, United States House of Representatives;
Herbert S. Fairbank, Chief, Division of Information, Public

Roads Administration, Federal Works Agency;
Carl Hayden, of Arizona, Committee on Post Offices and Post

Roads, United States Senate;
Pyke Johnson, Vice President, Automobile Manufacturers Associa-

tion, Washington, D.C.;
Thomas Harris MacDonald, Commissioner, Public Roads Admin-

istration, Federal Works Agency; James D. Mooney, Dr. Eng., Chairman, Highways Committee,

Automobile Manufacturers Association, New York, New York; Charles H. Purcell, E.D., LL.D., State Highway Engineer, Sacra

mento, California;
Daniel J. Reagan, Commercial Attaché, American Embassy,

Paris; 17
Henry G. Shirley, Commissioner, Department of Highways, Rich-

mond, Virginia;

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The first road congress, composed of the representatives of 33 nations, met in Paris on October 11, 1908. This congress was called by the French Government because changing conditions due to the rapid growth of the automobile industry and the popularization of this means of travel had brought back to the road its old importance as a means of communication and had turned the attention of experts to the construction of roads calculated to withstand the heavier wear of motor transportation. The chief work of this first meeting was the foundation of the Permanent International Association of Road Congresses, with headquarters at Paris.

The Permanent International Commission of the Association is composed of the representatives of the various countries members of the Association. A Permanent Council is appointed from among the members of the Commission.

The Association convenes quadrennial international congresses.

The object of the organization is to promote progress in the construction, traffic control, and exploitation of roads, accomplished by—

(1) Organizing road congresses;
(2) Publishing papers, proceedings, and other documents;
(3) Collecting the results of tests carried on throughout the world

on materials for road construction and maintenance.
For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941 the sum of $588 was appro-
priated by Congress to defray the expense of American participation
in the activities of the Association (54 Stat. 188).

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INTERNATIONAL LABOR ORGANIZATION

(Established in 1919)
Offices: Montreal, Quebec, Canada.19
United States Labor Commissioner: Carter Goodrich, Ph.D., of New

York.
Assistant United States Labor Commissioner: John S. Gambs, Ph.D.,

of New York.20

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The Peace Conference on January 25, 1919 appointed a commission to study the future of international labor legislation, with instructions to make a study of the conditions of employment from the international point of view; to consider what means would be necessary to obtain common action on matters affecting conditions of employment; and to recommend the form of a permanent agency designed to continue such inquiry and consideration.

The work of this commission resulted in (1) a draft constitution for a permanent international labor legislative organization, which was given the name of the International Labor Organization, and (2) a series of declarations of principle which the Organization strives to apply.

Briefly, it is the purpose of the International Labor Organization to collect information concerning labor throughout the world and to prepare international conventions and recommendations for the consideration of member governments, with a view to improving the conditions of labor.

The Organization consists of the annual Conference of representatives of the member states, the International Labor Office, and the Governing Body of the International Labor Office.

The annual Conference, which is the legislative body of the Organization, is composed of four representatives from each member state, one representing the employers, one the workers, and two the governments. These Conferences discuss an agenda prepared by the Governing Body of the International Labor Office and draw up draft conventions and recommendations affecting industrial conditions, which are presented to the competent authorities in each member state for ratification or adoption. The constitution of the Organization imposes no obligation on the members to adopt legislation in accordance with draft conventions or recommendations but merely

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10 As a result of wartime conditions, the headquarters of the International Labor Organization were transferred from Geneva, Switzerland, to temporary quarters at Montreal.

20 Dr. Gambs resigned as Assistant United States Labor Commissioner on October 30, 1940.

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