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PAN AMERICAN COMMITTEE OF THE UNITED STATES

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(Resolutions of the Third and Seventh International Conferences of American

States, 1906 and 1933)
Members of the National Committee:

Spruille Braden, LL.D., New York, New York, Chairman;
Adolf A. Berle, Jr., LL.D., New York, New York;
Isaiah Bowman, Ph. D., Sc. D., LL.D., Baltimore, Maryland;
Sophonisba P. Breckinridge, Ph. D., J.D., LL.D., Chicago, Illinois;
Norman H. Davis, D.C.L., LL.D., Washington, D.C.;
Stephen Pierce Duggan, Ph. D., LL.D., Litt. D., New York, New

York;
James W. Gerard, LL.D., New York, New York;
Joseph P. Grace, New York, New York;
John L. Merrill, New York, New York;
Henry Morgenthau, Sr., LL.D., New York, New York;
The Most Reverend John F. O'Hara, C.S.C., D.D., New York, New

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York;

Frank L. Polk, D.C.L., LL.D., New York, New York;

George Grafton Wilson, Ph. D., LL.D., Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Executive Committee of the National Committee:

Spruille Braden, Chairman;
Sophonisba P. Breckinridge.

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The Pan American Committee was first organized in accordance with a resolution adopted at the Third International Conference of American States, which met in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 1906, and resolutions for the continuance of the Committee have been adopted by succeeding conferences. Pursuant to a resolution adopted by the Seventh International Conference of American States (Conference Series 19 and 20), which was held at Montevideo, Uruguay, in 1933, the Pan American Committee of the United States was reorganized in September 1935.

The National Pan American Committees are composed of persons who are actually interested in the inter-American conferences and who, therefore, may be expected to encourage their respective governments to adopt measures in line with the conventions and resolutions adopted at the conferences. The Committees may further be expected to foster any movement which has as its object the improvement of inter-American relations.

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PAN AMERICAN RAILWAY COMMITTEE (Resolutions of the First and Fifth International Conferences of American

States, 1889–90 and 1923)

Offices: Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Central Committee:

Juan A. Briano, of Argentina, Chairman;
Estanislau Bosquet, of Brazil;
Francisco P. de Hoyos, of Mexico;
Verne LeRoy Havens, of the United States of America;
Gabriel Quirós, of Chile;

Jorge Triana, of Colombia.
National Committee for the United States:

Walter Moore, Birmingham, Alabama;
Benjamin F. Yoakum, New York, New York.

The International Railway Commission was established in accordance with a resolution of the First International Conference of American States that met in Washington in 1889. This Commission was established for the purpose of determining the feasibility of an international railway from New York to Buenos Aires, Argentina. The Commission made surveys, the results of which were published in seven volumes in 1898. The Fifth International Conference of American States, which met in Santiago, Chile, in 1923,38 authorized the reorganization of the Commission and named it the Pan American Railway Committee. As reorganized the Committee consists of a central committee of seven members and a national committee for each country through which the railway is to run. At the present time there is one vacancy on the Committee.

The Committee has submitted a report to each of the conferences of American states held since its constitution and is continuing its efforts with a view to the eventual completion of the inter-American railway, of which approximately 7,000 miles have been constructed.

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Non-national Member of the Chilean - United States Commission:

Oscar García Montes, of Cuba.

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The additional protocol to the general convention of inter-American conciliation was signed at the Seventh International Conference of American States (Conference Series 19 and 20) at Montevideo, Uruguay, December 26, 1933, and was ratified by the President of the United States on June 29, 1934 (Treaty Series 887; 49 Stat. 3185). This protocol supplements the treaty to avoid or prevent conflicts between the American states, signed at the Fifth International Conference of American States on May 3, 1923 (Treaty Series 752; 44 Stat. 2527), and the convention of inter-American conciliation signed at Washington on January 5, 1929 (Treaty Series 780; 46 Stat. 2209). The additional protocol provides for the establishment of Permanent Commissions of Investigation and Conciliation. The Commissions, which are bilateral, are to consist of five members, each government designating two commissioners, one a national and the other a national of another American state. The two commissioners of each government will serve on all the bilateral commissions established under the protocol to which that government is a party, except that the nonnational commissioner may not serve as such on a commission with the country of which he is a citizen. The fifth member of each bilateral commission is to be chosen by the four commissioners already appointed, and his designation shall be confirmed by a simple exchange of notes between the respective governments. In the event that the governments are unable to agree upon a fifth member, the designation shall be made in the manner provided in article IV of the treaty to avoid or prevent conflicts between the American states, 1923. The Commissions will not function until the fifth member shall have been chosen. Dr. Helio Lobo, of Brazil, was elected fifth member of the United States - Dominican Commission on January 10, 1940.

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PANEL OF MEDIATORS
(Inter-American treaty on good offices and mediation, 1936 5)
Members for the United States:

Norman H. Davis, D.C.L., LL.D., Washington, D. C.;
Henry L. Stimson, LL.D., New York, New York.40

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ference Series 33 and 35) at Buenos Aires, Argentina, on December 23, 1936 and ratified by the President of the United States on July 15, 1937. The treaty provides that the contracting parties, when a controversy arises between them which cannot be settled by the usual diplomatic means, may have recourse to the good offices or mediation of a person eminent in the affairs of any of the other American countries. To this end, the treaty further provides for the creation of a permanent panel of mediators, each country to select two members from among its most distinguished citizens.

INTERNATIONAL SUGAR COUNCIL (Established by the international agreement regarding the regulation of produc

tion and marketing of sugar, 1937“) Offices : London, England. Delegates of the United States to the Council: Herschel V. Johnson, Minister Counselor, American Embassy, Lon

don; Loyd V. Steere, Agricultural Attaché, American Embassy, London. Representative of the Commonwealth of the Philippines on the

Delegation of the United States to the Council: Joaquin M. Elizalde, Philippine Resident Commissioner to the United States.

The International Sugar Council was established by the international agreement regarding the regulation of production and marketing of sugar, signed at London, May 6, 1937, and is charged with the administration of the agreement. It is composed of delegates representing the governments which are parties to the agreement.

Under the agreement, 17 exporting countries and the Commonwealth of the Philippines agreed to limit their exports of sugar to the socalled “world-free market”, i.e. to territories in which these exports do not receive preferential tariff treatment, and to regulate their production so that the stocks of sugar in each country shall not, on a fixed date in each year, exceed specified proportions. The agreement established a basic free-market export quota for each of these countries. Four importing countries, namely, China, India, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America, also signed the agreement, with power to cast a total of 45 votes in the Council as compared with 55 votes distributed among the exporting countries—some deci

"IV Treaties, etc., Between the United States and Other Powers, 1923–37 (Trenwith, 1938).

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sions of the Council require three fifths or three fourths of the vote cast.

The Council has power to allot additional export quotas to all the countries concerned, the additional quotas for each country being proportional to the basic quota for that country, and to redistribute export quotas or parts of quotas which may not be used by any exporting country in any quota-year among the other exporting countries. It is also the duty of the Council to estimate, at least 20 days before the beginning of each quota-year, the requirements of consumption of the free market for that year; to determine the conditions on which other governments may accede to the agreement, including the number of votes in the Council which shall be allotted to each such government; to consider any complaints of non-compliance with the obligations of the agreement; to consider applications of any government to withdraw from the agreement; and to make studies as to forms of state assistance to sugar production, fiscal burdens on sugar, and efforts to promote increased consumption and new alternative uses for sugar.

The Council meets at least once a year and may be convened at any time by its Chairman on not less than 20 days' advance notice.

The Council maintains a secretariat with offices in London. It publishes a bulletin of sugar statistics.

The contribution which the United States of America makes to the Council is paid from funds available to the Department of Agriculture.

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PAN AMERICAN HIGHWAY ORGANIZATIONS
(Convention on the Pan American Highway, signed at Buenos Aires, Argentina,

December 23, 1936 )
American Member of the Commission of Technical Experts: Thomas

Harris MacDonald, Commissioner, Public Roads Administration,

Federal Works Agency.
American Member of the Financial Committee: John Van Ness Philip,

Claverack, New York.
Information Office: Public Roads Administration, Federal Works

Agency.

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The convention on the Pan American Highway was concluded during the Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance of Peace

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12 Treaty Series 927; 51 Stat. 152.

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