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The Wheat Advisory Committee was established by article 7 of
the final act of the Conference of Wheat Exporting and Importing
Countries, signed at London by representatives of 22 countries on
August 25, 1933.

The Committee consists of representatives of Argentina, Australia,
Canada, Danubian countries, France, Union of Soviet Socialist Re-
publics, United Kingdom, United States of America, and, at times,
other importing countries. In the past the Chairman has been the
American Ambassador in London, or his designate. The Secretary
has been Mr. A. Cairns, of Canada.

The purpose of the Committee originally was to watch over the working and application of the agreements comprising articles 1 to 6, inclusive, of the final act. Those agreements provided that the principal exporting countries would restrict their wheat exports during 1933–34 and 1934–35 and that the importing countries, parties to the agreement, would stop encouraging wheat-acreage expansion, would adopt measures to increase wheat consumption, and would undertake to lower import duties when the c.i.f. gold price on the world market exceeded 63.02 gold cents a bushel for a period of 16 weeks. During the first year these agreements were abandoned. Subsequently the Committee, through its permanent secretariat, has prepared statistical analyses of the world wheat situation for the benefit of participating governments. In all cases the Committee functions in an advisory capacity.

The Committee maintains its secretariat by means of contributions from the governments still participating. Contributions are proportional to base-period wheat production and, in addition, propor

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See Conference Series 17, p. 18; 20, pp. 1, 8, 9, 17, 22, and 26 ; 23, pp. 10, 32, 39, and 49; 35, p. 11; 45, pp. 10, 56, 61, and 69.

See Treaty Information Bulletin 48, September 1933, pp. 18-28.

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tional to base-period wheat exports from the wheat-exporting countries.

The last meetings sponsored by the Committee were held in London in August 1939.

Funds to pay the 1941 quota of the United States as a member of the Committee were contained in the Department of Agriculture Appropriation Act, 1941”.

PERMANENT COMMITTEE OF HABANA (Resolutions of the Sixth 6 and Eighth * International Conferences of American

States, 1928 and 1938) Offices: Habana, Cuba. United States Member: Hessel Edward Yntema, Ph. D., S.J.D., Pro

fessor of Law, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

The Permanent Committee of Habana was established in accordance with a resolution of the Sixth International Conference of American States, which met at Habana, Cuba, in 1928. The Conference resolved that three permanent committees should be organized, one in Rio de Janeiro for the work relating to public international law; another in Montevideo for the work dealing with private international law; and another in Habana for the study of comparative legislation and the unification of legislation. The membership of these committees was originally confined to nationals of the countries where the committees were located.

The Eighth International Conference of American States, which met at Lima, Peru, in December 1938, adopted a resolution providing that the committees should be enlarged by adding to each committee six members who are not nationals of the country where each committee has its seat. The resolution further provided that the Pan American Union should establish the procedure by which the 18 additional members would be designated. Under the procedure adopted by the Union this Government was selected to be represented on the Habana Committee.

The principal duties of the Permanent Committee of Habana are to propose to the American governments the topics pertaining to local law which may appear to the Committee susceptible of new attempts at codification on this continent or which may serve as the basis for uniformity of legislation; to request the opinion of the govern

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ments on the topics submitted and, in the event that favorable replies are received from at least two thirds of the governments, to send to all of them a questionnaire indicating points which might eventually constitute bases for conventions, declarations, or uniform laws; to prepare the bases of such conventions or uniform laws and to communicate these bases with all antecedent details on each subject to the Pan American Union in order that it may transmit them to the Committee of Experts on the Codification of International Law.56

COMMITTEE OF EXPERTS ON THE CODIFICATION OF

INTERNATIONAL LAW (Resolutions of the Seventh International Conference of American States, 1933;

Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance of Peace, 1936; 66 and Eighth

International Conference of American States, 1938 %*)
Members:

Afranio de Mello Franco, of Brazil, Chairman;
Alberto Cruchaga Ossa, of Chile;
Luis Anderson Morúa, of Costa Rica;
Eduardo Suárez, of Mexico;
Carlos Saavedra Lamas, of Argentina;
J. Reuben Clark, Jr., of the United States of America;
Edwin M. Borchard, of the United States of America;
Alberto Ulloa, of Peru; 60
Raimundo Rivas, of Colombia.co

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Resolution LXX of the Seventh International Conference of American States, which met at Montevideo, Uruguay, in December 1933, provided for the creation of a Committee of Experts to organize in a preparatory way the work incident to a gradual and progressive codification of international law. The Committee as set up under this resolution consisted of seven jurists elected by the various American governments. The procedure as provided by the Montevideo resolution was that each government should submit a list of five names and from these lists the governments should designate seven persons, not more than two of whom should be nationals. The seven persons obtaining the highest number of votes became members of the Committee.

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The Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance of Peace clarified the duties of the Committee and referred to it certain projects for study, among which were the code of peace, the definition of an aggressor, nationality, immunity of government vessels, pecuniary claims, and coordination of conciliation and arbitration treaties.

The Lima Conference increased the Committee of Experts from seven to nine members and defined its duties as follows:

The Committee of Experts, after receiving, through the Pan American Union, the material from each of the permanent committees, shall make a technical examination of each subject, and, on the basis of the material furnished by those committees, it shall prepare adequate drafts. Those drafts, properly supported, shall be transmitted to the Pan American Union, which shall transmit them to the American governments.

The work of the Committee has two phases: (1) the general codification of international law, and (2) the consideration of special topics assigned to it by the various conferences. It is with respect to these special topics that the Committee is active.

The Second Meeting of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Republics, Habana, 1940,62 referred to the Committee of Experts a project on the extension of territorial waters.

The Committee has held two meetings, the first in Washington, D.C., from April 5 to April 19, 1937, and the second at Lima, Peru, from November 30 to December 20, 1938.

PERMANENT COMMITTEE OF JURISTS ON CIVIL AND

COMMERCIAL LAWS
(Resolution of the Eighth International Conference of American States, 1938 63)
Offices: Lima, Peru.
Members:

Eduardo Arroyo Lameda, of Venezuela;
Manuel Augusto Olaechea, of Peru;
Wesley Alba Sturges, J. D., of the United States of America.

Resolution VII of the Eighth International Conference of American States held at Lima, Peru, in December 1938, provided for the creation of a Permanent Committee of Jurists to study and prepare the unification of the civil and commercial laws of America. The resolution further provided that the Committee be composed of three members, of whom one should be designated by the Gov

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ernment of the United States and the two remaining members determined by lot by the Rector of the University of San Marcos from a list of jurists made up by the designation of one member by each of the other 20 American governments.

The Committee was charged with formulating a plan for carrying on the work of unification of American civil and commercial legislation prior to July 30, 1939, in collaboration with the faculties of law of the University of San Marcos and of other universities of the American republics. When the Committee has prepared a definite uniform project of law or laws, it shall be distributed by the Pan American Union among the various governments for submission to their respective legislative bodies.

The Permanent Committee is also undertaking investigations of new subjects of civil and commercial legislation susceptible of unification. Faculties of law may assist the Permanent Committee by sending, on their own initiative through the intermediary of the University of San Marcos, suggestions of new points of private legislation susceptible of unification.

The reports which the Committee may prepare and the results at which it may arrive are to be filed and indexed by the Pan American Union in order to prepare, in time, the elements of American civil and commercial codes.

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The Eighth International Conference of American States held at Lima, Peru, in December 1938, adopted a resolution designed to extend on a continental basis measures providing for the protection and preservation of the fauna and flora of this hemisphere. The Pan American Union established, in accordance with the provisions of this resolution, the Inter-American Committee of Experts on Nature Protection and Wild Life Preservation, the membership of which consisted of one representative from each of the American republics. The Pan American Union also authorized the designation of such advisers to the respective committee members as each of the governments might deem necessary.

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See Conference Series 45.

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