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ADVISORY COMMITTEE ON EXCHANGE FELLOWSHIPS AND
American Conference for the Maintenance of Peace, 1936 ")
tute of International Education, New York, New York;
Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania;
of Learned Societies, Washington, D. C.;
Memorial Foundation, New York, New York;
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ;
cil, New York, New York.
The convention for the promotion of inter-American cultural relations was signed by all the American republics at the Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance of Peace, held at Buenos Aires in 1935, and has been ratified by 15 countries. The convention makes provision for an exchange of students and professors with a view to the development of a more realistic understanding among the peoples of the Western Hemisphere. The exchanges are designed to make available to the people in each of the American republics a
more accurate knowledge of the progress of science, the humanities, the technology, and the artistic achievements of their sister nations.
The procedure outlined in the convention provides that every year each one of the high contracting parties which has ratified the convention shall have the privilege of nominating and presenting a panel of names of five graduate students or teachers to each other ratifying government, from which panel the names of two persons shall be selected to receive a fellowship for the ensuing scholastic year. These panels, in order to receive consideration, should be submitted on or before the dates specified in the convention, i.e., countries of South America, November 30; all other countries, March 31. Fellowships for which no panel of names is submitted on or before the date mentioned may be awarded to applicants nominated on the panels of any other country but not receiving fellowships. Each government shall also communicate to the other governments, on the first of January of every alternate year, a complete list of professors available for exchange service from the outstanding universities, scientific institutions, and technical schools of its country. From this list each of the other governments shall arrange to select a visiting professor who shall give lectures in various centers, conduct regular courses of instruction, or pursue special research in some designated institution. However, preference shall be given to teaching rather than research work.
The Advisory Committee on Exchange Fellowships and Professorships was appointed to counsel this Government in carrying out its obligations under the convention. The Committee was appointed by the President under the authority of the act of August 9, 1939 (53 Stat. 1290) to advise on the selection of graduate students and professors for the panels presented to other participating governments and to advise on the selection of graduate students and professors from the panels presented by other participating governments, under the convention for the promotion of inter-American cultural relations; and, generally, to advise on matters relating to the interchange of students and professors.
The expenses involved in the exchange program are shared by the participating governments, the nominating governments defraying the round-trip travel costs of students together with other incidental expenses, and the receiving government furnishing the funds for tuition, subsidiary expenses, and board and lodging at the institutions in which the visiting students are enrolled. All expenses of visiting professors are to be paid by the sending government.
Under the Appropriation Act of the Department of State for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941 (54 Stat. 181), the sum of $94,500 was provided for disbursement under the direction of the Secretary of State for meeting the obligations of the United States under the convention for the promotion of inter-American cultural relations, including salaries, traveling expenses, tuition, and allowances for maintenance and living quarters for professors and students in accordance with the provisions of said convention.
PAN AMERICAN RESOURCES COMMISSION
(Resolution of the Eighth American Scientific Congress, 1940 *) United States Member: Frederic A. Delano, Chairman, National Re
sources Planning Board.
Resolution I of the section on Agriculture and Conservation, as approved by the Eighth American Scientific Congress, recommended the appointment of an inter-American conservation commission to be charged with the duty of preparing an inventory of world natural resources and of formulating a general policy and specific program of action to promote the mutual conservation and prudent utilization of natural resources for the welfare of all nations. Under the provisions of the resolution, the commission was to cooperate with the Pan American Union and to represent all the Americas.
To give effect to this resolution, the Governing Board of the Pan American Union recommended the organization of a Pan American Resources Commission, composed of one representative from each of the American republics. The procedure approved by the Governing Board authorized each national representative to appoint a National Resources Committee of five members with authority to obtain assistance from appropriate organizations within the respective countries and to cooperate with the National Committees of the other American republics in carrying out the purposes of the Commission.
The President has approved the designation of the Honorable Frederic A. Delano, Chairman of the National Resources Planning Board, as this Government's representative on the Commission. The functions of the National Committee for the United States have been undertaken by the National Resources Planning Board.
The Eighth American Scientific Congress, held at Washington, D. C., in May 1940, recommended (resolution II, section on Agriculture and Conservation) that the Pan American Union appoint a committee on soil erosion, and soil and water conservation, composed of one representative from each of the American republics, with a view to effecting a coordinated approach to the conservation problem on a continental basis.
In pursuance of this resolution, the Governing Board of the Pan American Union recommended that the governments of the 21 American republics appoint one member each to a permanent Pan American Soil Conservation Commission and that this member be either the Minister of Agriculture or his designate. Dr. Hugh H. Bennett was suggested by the Secretary of Agriculture as the United States representative, and his designation was approved by the President. The functions of the Commission are as follows: (1) To urge the governments of all of the American republics to
give immediate consideration to the development of soilconservation programs as an important measure of second
ary defense of the hemisphere; (2) To maintain a free interchange of information between the
American republics regarding procedures and methods for
effecting soil conservation; (3) To encourage the interchange of personnel among the Ameri
can republics in furtherance of the training, research, and
action phases of soil conservation; (4) The publication of reports in furtherance of these objects.
INTER-AMERICAN COMMISSION ON TROPICAL AGRICULTURE
(Resolution of the Eighth American Scientific Congress, 1940 78) United States Member: Earl N. Bressman, Ph. D., Assistant Director,
Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations, Department of Agriculture.
The Eighth American Scientific Congress, recognizing that research and technical knowledge are essential for the successful development of tropical agriculture in the Western Hemisphere, resolved to endorse and undertake in all appropriate ways to encourage the establishment and development of an Inter-American Institute of Tropical Agriculture, both for research and the training of technical personnel, and to recommend to the Pan American Union that it appoint a com
* See Conference Series 49.
mittee of five representatives from the American republics to study the proposal. In another resolution, the Scientific Congress recommended that a committee of five members be appointed to act in all matters relating to the development of rubber production in the Americas.
Because of the relationship between the objectives of these resolutions, the Governing Board of the Pan American Union provided for one committee of five members with a twofold purpose: (a) To study all proposals relating to the creation of an Inter-American Institute of Tropical Agriculture, and to make specific recommendations regarding its establishment; and (b) to promote and expedite the production of rubber in the Western Hemisphere. So far as the second function of the Commission is concerned, it is a permanent body.
The Commission was originally composed of representatives of the Governments of Brazil, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Venezuela; but was later enlarged to 10 members, and Bolivia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and United States of America also appointed members. Dr. Earl N. Bressman, Assistant Director of the Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations, Department of Agriculture, was designated as this Government's representative.
PERMANENT JOINT BOARD ON DEFENSE
United States Section:
Civilian Defense; President, United States Conference of Mayors;
Department of State; Secretary.
O. M. Biggar, K.C.; Chairman;
Department of National Defense; Ottawa, Ontario;