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versal application, is under the direction and supervision of the International Committee of Weights and Measures. This Committee is composed of 18 members, each from a different state, elected by the general conference of delegates from the contracting countries.

Congress first appropriated money for the contribution of the United States to the Bureau in 1878 (20 Stat. 217). For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941 the sum of $4,342.50 was appropriated by Congress to defray the cost of American participation in the activities of the Bureau (54 Stat. 187).

INTERNATIONAL BUREAU FOR THE PUBLICATION OF

CUSTOMS TARIFFS

(Established in 1891)

Offices: Brussels, Belgium.

The convention of July 5, 1890 (Treaty Series 384; 26 Stat. 1518) provides for the formation of an International Union for the Publication of Customs Tariffs. Under the convention this Government is obligated to contribute an annual sum toward the maintenance of the International Bureau at Brussels.

The object of the union, as stated in the convention, is “to publish at the common expense, and to make known as speedily and accurately as possible, the customs tariffs of the various states of the globe and the modifications that may, in future, be made in those tariffs".

To this end it is the duty of the International Bureau to cause these tariffs and any legislative or executive modifications to be translated and published in a collection entitled International Customs Bulletin.

The first appropriation for the annual contribution of this Government for the maintenance of the Bureau was made on March 2, 1889 (25 Stat. 957). For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941 the sum of $1,318.77 was appropriated by Congress to defray the cost of American participation in the activities of the Bureau (54 Stat. 187).

PAN AMERICAN UNION

(Established in 1890) Offices: Washington, D.C.

The Pan American Union is the official international organization of the 21 republics of the Western Hemisphere. It was established with the purpose of developing closer cooperation between the nations of America, of fostering inter-American commerce, of strength

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ening intellectual and cultural ties, and of facilitating the interchange of information on all problems affecting the welfare of the nations of this hemisphere. It is supported through their joint contribution, each nation annually paying that proportion of the total budget of expenses which its population bears to the total population of all the American republics.

Control of the Pan American Union is vested in a Governing Board composed of representatives appointed by the member states. Such representation may devolve upon the diplomatic representatives of the respective countries in Washington. The principle of equality is maintained on the Governing Board, and the representative of the smallest country has equal voice with that of the largest. Its executive officers are a Director General and an Assistant Director, elected by the Board. They, in turn, are assisted by a trained staff of editors, statisticians, compilers, trade experts, translators, librarians, and clerks. It is strictly international in its scope, purpose, and control, and each nation has equal authority in its administration.

The activities and facilities of the Union include the following: the publication in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, with separate editions, of an illustrated monthly bulletin, which is the record of the progress of all the republics; the publication of handbooks, descriptive pamphlets, commercial statements, maps, and special reports relating to each country; correspondence covering all phases of Pan American activities; and the distribution of every variety of information helpful in the promotion of Pan American commerce, acquaintance, cooperation, and solidarity of interests. It also prepares the programs for the international conferences of American states and is custodian of their archives. In many cases of multilateral treaties and conventions adopted by international conferences of American states the Pan American Union is by their terms made the depositary of the originals and entrusted with the duties resulting therefrom. The Union is required to furnish the signatory governments with certified copies of the originals, to receive the deposit of the instruments of ratification of the governments, to draw up procès-verbaux of such deposits, and to notify the contracting parties of such deposit. Its library, known as the Columbus Memorial Library, contains approximately 110,000 volumes, including the official publications, documents, and laws of all the American republics, together with a large collection of maps. The Union also possesses a collection of more than 35,000 photographs, lantern slides, and negatives. Its reading room, which is open to the public, has upon its tables the representative magazines and newspapers of Latin America.

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* See ante, p. 45.

The Union occupies and owns buildings and grounds in Washington representing an outlay of $1,100,000, of which Andrew Carnegie contributed $850,000 and the American republics $250,000. These buildings and grounds are dedicated forever to the use of the Pan American Union as an international organization.

The Pan American Union was founded in 1890, under the name of the International Bureau of American Republics, in accordance with the action of the First International Conference of American States, held in Washington in 1889–90 and presided over by James G. Blaine, then Secretary of State. It was reorganized in 1907 by action of the Third International Conference of American States, held in Rio de Janeiro in 1906. At the Fourth Conference, held in Buenos Aires in 1910, its name was changed from the International Bureau of American Republics to the Pan American Union. The Fifth Conference, held in Santiago, Chile, in 1923, the Sixth Conference, which met in Habana, Cuba, in 1928,2 the Seventh Conference, held in Montevideo, Uruguay, in 1933 (Conference Series 19 and 20), and the Eighth Conference, held in Lima, Peru, in 1938 (Conference Series 45), considerably enlarged the activities of the Union. Other recent conferences which have given greater scope to the work of the Union are the Inter-American Conference for the Maintenance of Peace, Buenos Aires, 1936 (Conference Series 33 and 35), and the First and Second Meetings of the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of the American Republics, Panamá, 1939 (Conference Series 49), and Habana, 1910.3

Congress first appropriated money for the contribution of the United States to the Union in 1890 (26 Stat. 275), and for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941 the sum of $239,458.70 was appropriated by Congress to defray the cost of American participation in the activities of the Union (54 Stat. 187).

BUREAU OF THE INTERPARLIAMENTARY UNION

(Established in 1888) Offices : Geneva, Switzerland.

Organized groups of members of the legislative bodies of interested countries comprise the Interparliamentary Union. The Union was established in Paris, France, in October 1888 and had its first conference there in June 1889.

'Soe Report of the Delegates of the United States of America (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1928).

See ante, p. 1.

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The purpose of the organization as stated in its statutes “is to unite in common action the members of all parliaments, constituted into National Groups, in order to secure the cooperation of their respective States in the firm establishment and the democratic development of the work of international peace and cooperation between nations by means of a universal organization of nations. Its object is also to study all questions of an international character suitable for settlement by parliamentary action.” To this end the Union comprises seven permanent study commissions which deal with:

(1) Political and organizational questions;
(2) Economic and financial questions;
(3) Juridical questions;
(4) Ethnic and colonial questions;
(5) Reduction of armaments;
(6) Social and humanitarian questions;

(7) Phases of intellectual cooperation.
The organization of the Union starts with the national groups.
Each group, limited to members of the parliament, possesses its own
organization, with its bylaws, officers, and committees. Delegates
from these groups make up the international conferences, where only
they take part. The governing body of the Union since 1899 has
been the council which is composed of two members from each
national group. This body, which meets once a year or on the call
of its president, fixes the agenda for the conferences; determines the
time and place of the meetings; drafts the budget; nominates officers;
and functions generally as a governing body. In 1908 a permanent
chairman was provided for the council, to be assisted by an executive
committee of five members, including the chairman. This committee
prepares the work for the council and controls the central office.
The central office is the Bureau of the Interparliamentary Union.
It is this Bureau which deals directly with the groups.

The Bureau of the Interparliamentary Union is charged with the duties of keeping lists of the members of the national groups, and encouraging the creation of new groups; acting as the central office of national interparliamentary groups in all that concerns their mutual relations; preparing the questions to be submitted to the council and to the conferences and distributing the necessary documents; attending to the execution of the decisions of the council and of the conferences; and keeping the archives of the Union and collecting documents relating to international arbitration, and other documents regarding the objects of the Union.

Since the year 1911 the United States has contributed an annual sum toward the expenses of the Bureau. Funds for the first yearly

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payment were provided by an act of Congress approved May 6, 1910 (36 Stat. 345). The United States by an act of Congress approved June 28, 1935 (49 Stat. 425), authorized an annual appropriation toward the maintenance of the Bureau. For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1941 the sum of $10,000 was appropriated by Congress to pay the quota of the United States (54 Stat. 187). The Congress did not make an appropriation for the expenses of the United States group as there was no conference in the 1941 fiscal year.

PAN AMERICAN SANITARY BUREAU

(Established in 1902) Offices: Washington, D. C.

The Pan American Sanitary Bureau is an independent international organization created pursuant to a resolution adopted at the Second International Conference of American States which met in Mexico City in 1901-2. Following the action taken at Mexico City, several conventions dealing with the Bureau have been concluded: the convention of October 14, 1905 (35 Stat. 2094); the Pan American Sanitary Code, November 14, 1924 (44 Stat. 2031); and the additional protocol of October 19, 1927 (45 Stat. 2613).

The Bureau is governed by a directing council composed of leading health experts of the American republics, who are elected by the Pan American sanitary conferences and serve ad honorem.

Although it has no organic connection with the Pan American Union, the Bureau cooperates closely with it and maintains its offices in the building of the Union.

The Bureau is the central coordinating agency for public health in the Western Hemisphere, especially with reference to quarantine measures applicable to aerial and maritime carriers in international commerce. Its functions are defined by the Pan American Sanitary Code, which was ratified by all the 21 American republics. The Bureau has appointed from time to time traveling representatives—generally medical officers from national-health services, whose mission is to cooperate with the national-health authorities of the various countries, furnishing such technical assistance as may be desired. Sanitary engineers are also employed by the Bureau for cooperative work. The Bureau has published since 1922 a monthly bulletin with articles in Spanish, Portuguese, French, and

* Formerly called the International Sanitary Bureau. See ante, p. 76.

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