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maximum output both from the soil and from fisheries. In certain areas, however, modification in this policy may be undertaken where a continuance of the war production pattern results in a disproportionate sacrifice in productivity, provided essential foods are otherwise available.
2. That it shall be the responsibility of the Administration to assist governments and recognized national authorities in the liberated areas immediately to take the necessary steps in providing the supplies and services needed to enable farmers to sow and harvest essential crops during the first crop year, to maintain their dairy herds, and to rehabilitate their farms for immediate food production. It shall also be the responsibility of the Administration to assist in restoring necessary processing facilities; in providing for the early expansion of fisheries and of the whaling industry; in reinstating the agricultural labor needed to carry out the production program; and, to the extent that they can contribute to the solution of relief problems, in reestablishing experimental stations and essential agricultural institutions, organizations, and services, in making the necessary technical surveys to determine agricultural requirements and to lay the basis for production programs.
3. That it shall be the policy of the Administration to integrate to the fullest possible extent its short-run agricultural rehabilitation and food production efforts with the longer-run reconstruction objectives of the United Nations Organization for Food and Agriculture, and to shape its policies so as not to hamper the achievement of those objectives, which call for the progressive realization in all countries of diets adequate both in quantity and quality.
4. That since priorities between various agricultural items will vary from area to area, such priorities shall be determined by the government or recognized national authority concerned in conjunction with the Director General in accordance with the general policy outlined above. In determining such priority for agriculture and fishing requirements the test should be applied whether the supply of these requirements will bring early and large returns in the form of crops and fish for direct human consumption.
5. The Administration should be prepared when requested by a government or recognized national authority to assist them in making technical field surveys in establishing priority on the need for supplies in making available information concerning production surpluses in nearby areas, and in providing such other technical assistance as is required.
Resolution No. 12
A Resolution Relating to Policies With Respect to the Rehabilitation
of Such Industries, Transport, and Other Services as Are Essential to Relief
(Reception No. (316) 325) WHEREAS
The preamble of the Agreement states that preparations and arrangements shall be made for assistance in the resumption of urgently needed industrial production and the restoration of essential services, it is therefore
That, subject to the provisions of Resolutions Nos. 1 and 17 of this Session, the Council approves the following statement as a guide to activities with respect to the rehabilitation of such industries, transport and other services as are essential to relief:
1. Rehabilitation supplies are to consist of materials, such as raw materials, machinery, and spare parts needed to enable a recipient country to produce and transport relief supplies for its own and other liberated territories; and, within the scope of the Administration, the rehabilitation of public utilities and services, so far as they can be repaired and restored to meet immediate, basic needs, such essentials as light and water, power, transportation, and communication. These needs include rehabilitation of essential relief industries, such as those which provide food, shelter, clothing, medical supplies.
2. Raw materials may be supplied by (a) the liberated country in which the industry is situated and in which the materials are to be used, (6) another liberated country, or (c) any other country. The task of the Administration in cases (a) and (6) should be the rehabilitation of the raw material producing industries such as coal mines, mineral mines, construction materials industries, etc.
3. If the raw materials required must be imported from overseas, it should be the responsibility of the Administration, through the appropriate national or intergovernmental agencies, to arrange for necessary allocation and procurement of supplies, so that there may be created as promptly as possible, reserves to be available at the request of the Director General when and wherever the need arises.
4. It is recommended that pools be created of materials such as processing materials, machine tools, mobile power units, maintenance equipment, industrial machinery of both standard and special types, and spare parts.
5. It is recommended that in cases where home production exceeds home consumption, the government or recognized national authority concerned should take all steps necessary to enable the excess of pro
duction available in a country to be put at the disposal of other liberated areas which may need such supplies to cover their deficits.
6. It should be the policy of the Administration to help those countries whose industries can be rehabilitated for production of relief and rehabilitation goods urgently required in other liberated areas. It is recommended that in attainment of these objectives the following be considered: special allocations of raw materials, machinery, and spare parts, by placing at the disposal of those countries, at the request of their governments, an experienced staff, and by providing special priorities for the return of skilled personnel awaiting repatriation.
7. It is recommended that the governments or recognized national authorities having administrative authority in a liberated area will keep the Director General and the appropriate regional committee fully informed as to any surplus of supplies from time to time available in such area, to meet, when circumstances permit, relief and rehabilitation import requirements of other liberated areas.
8. It is recommended that the Administration should, in consultation with the governments or recognized national authorities concerned and the appropriate international coordinating authority, assist liberated areas in restoring the transport and communications system to satisfactory working condition; it should also help to restore equipment, repair shops, workshops, shipyards, etc. It is recommended that a pool of transportation equipment both fixed and mobile should be created either from stocks manufactured overseas or in Allied or in neutral countries. Equipment which has been the property of the enemy may also form part of the pool.
9. It should be the task of the Administration to participate in conjunction with military and other appropriate authorities in the organization and coordination of the transportation of relief and rehabilitation supplies during the relief and rehabilitation period.
10. It is recommended that the requirements for raw materials, machinery, spare parts and processing materials should be established within each country and that a definite order of priority be established taking into consideration: (a) technical factors, such as, on the one hand, the necessity of restoring the public services (gas, water, electricity), and, on the other, the needs of various types of consumer goods; (b) social factors, such as the necessity of providing reemployment; (c) temporary economic factors, such as scarcity of certain raw materials and shipping.
11. The task of rehabilitation must not be considered as the beginning of reconstruction—it is coterminous with relief. No new construction or reconstruction work is contemplated, but only rehabilitation as defined in the preamble of the Agreement. Problems, such as
unemployment, are important, but not determining factors. They are consequences and, at the same time, motives of action. The Administration cannot be called upon to help restore continuous employ. ment in the world.
Resolution No. 13
A Resolution Relating to Policies With Respect to Shelter
(Reception No. (317) 326) RESOLVED
That the Council approves the following statement as a guide to activities with respect to shelter :
1. Any general rebuilding policy for the areas to be liberated is in the sphere of long-term reconstruction and does not, therefore, come within the purview of the Administration.
2. In the relief period priority in the rehabilitation of essential shelter or accommodation in the liberated areas should be given to:
hospitals and schools;
in essential public services and in industries having high
workers. 3. Where it may be necessary, however, there should be imported construction tools such as hand tools, building supplies and equipment, including excavating machinery, should essential materials and equipment not be found available, or be in short supply.
4. As regards the problem of shelter for displaced persons, which falls into two parts—temporary accommodation at collecting points and at frontiers, and accommodation of a more permanent, though not necessarily final character, for persons who cannot be returned to their homes either because their homes have been destroyed or because these are in territories still occupied by the enemy-wherever possible existing buildings, camps, barracks, and other buildings, should be used as they are or can be made suitable.
5. Where, in some enemy-occupied territories, extensive enemy colonization has taken place, and where consolidation of holdings and construction of military installations has been accompanied by destruction of farmhouses and buildings, there should be provided camp accommodations for farmers and agricultural workers upon return to their own country. Any large-scale permanent reconstruction of holdings and the rebuilding of farmhouses and other struc'tures should not be undertaken by the Administration. Pools of building materials shall be promptly created so that advance arrangements can be made for the accommodation of farmers and agricultural workers.
6. Where prefabricated housing is a specialized industry in any of the territories of a member government, the importance of making these supplies available as a part of the contribution of these governments should be recognized.
7. Where there is wide-spread destruction of particular areas caused by military operations or of a deliberate "scorched earth” policy on the part of the enemy, although priority should be given to housing repairs as indicated in paragraph 2, accommodation or shelter for workers in the food processing industries should be provided.
8. It is of importance that arrangements should be made, with the consent of the government concerned, for an export assessment of this damage, so that detailed and accurate specifications of the equipment required in the reconstruction of factories providing essential relief requirements and the shelter or accommodations for the workers engaged in those industries may be obtained at as early a date as possible. In order that this work may be started, if possible, during the period of military responsibility for civilian relief and rehabilitation, the Council recommends to its member governments that the military authorities be invited to advise the Administration, to the fullest extent consistent with military security, of conditions found in the area affecting civilian relief and rehabilitation requirements and supplies.