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Present. Split, Spread, Spring, Stand, Steal, Stick, Sting, Stink, Stride, Strike, String, Strive,


Strow or strew.


Swell, Swin,


Perf. or Pass. Part. split,

split. spread,

spread. sprung, sprang, sprung. stood,

stood. stole,

stolen. stuck,

stuck, stung,

stung. stunk,

stunk. strode or strid, stridden. struck,

struck or stricken.

strung. strove,


s strown, strowed, strowed orstrewed,

? strewed, swore,

sworn. swet, R.

swet, R. swelled,

swollen, R. swum, swam,

swum, swung,

swung. took,

taken. taught,

taught. tore,

torn told,

told. thought,

thought. throve, R. thriven.


thrust. trod,

trodden. waxed,

waxen, R. wore,

worn. wove,

woven. wept,

wept. won,

won. wound,

wound. wrought,

wrought or worked. wrung,

wrung. wrote,


threw, thrust,


In the preceding list, some of the verbs will be found to be conjugated regularly, as well as irregularly; and those which admit of the regular form are marked with an R.' There is a preference to be given to some of these, which custom and judgment must determine. Those preterits and participles which are first mentioned in the list, seem to be the most eligible. The Compiler has not inserted such verbs as are irregular only in familiar writing or discourse, and which are improperly terminated by t, instead of ed: as, learnt, spelt, spilt, &c. These should be avoided in every sort of composition. It is, however, proper to observe, that some contractions of ed into t, are un: exceptionable: and others, the only established forins of expression: as crept, dwelt, gilt, &c.: and lost, felt, slept, &c. These allowable and necessary contractions musť therefore be carefully distinguished by the learner, from those that are exceptionable. The words which are obso. lete have also been omitted, that the learner might not be induced to mistake them for words in present use. Such are, wreathen, drunken, holpen, molten, gotten, holden, bounden, &c.: and swang, wrang, slank, strawed, gat, .' brake, tare, ware, &c.

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Section 11. Of Defective Verbs; and of the different ways

in which verbs are conjugated.. DEFECTIVE VER:BS are those which are used only : in some of the moods and tenses. .

The principal of them are these.

Perf. or Pass. Park... ,

could, May,

might, Shall,

should, Will,

would, Must,

must, Ought,

sought, quoth,

That the verbs must and ought have both a present and past signification, appears from the following sentences: “I must own that I am to blame;" " He must have been mistaken;" “ Speaking things which they ought not ;" “These ought ye to have done.”—See the 8ro Gram. 3d edit. p. 169, 170,

In most languages there are some verbs which are defective with respect to persons. These are denominated impersonal verbs. They are used only in the third person, because they refer to a subject peculiarly appropriated to that person; as, “ It rains, it snows, it hails, it lightens, it thunders.”. But as the word impersonal implies a total absence of persons, it is improperly applied to those verbs which have a person: and lience it is manifest, that there is no such thing in English, nor indeed, in any language, as a sort of verbs really impersonal. -See the 800 Gram. 3d edil.p. 170,

The whole number of verbs in the English language, regular and irregular, simple and compounded, taken together, is about 4300. The number of irregular verbs, the defective included, is about 177*. .

Some Grammarians have thought that the English verbs, as well as those of the Greek, Latin, French, and other languages, might be classed iirto several conjugations; and that the three different terminations of the participle might be the distinguishing characteristics. They have accordingly proposed three conjugations; namely, the first to consist of verbs, the participles of which end în ed, or its contraction t; the second, of those ending in ght; and the third of those in en. But as the verbs of the first conjugation, would so greatly exceed in number those of both the others, as may be seen by the preceding account of them ; and as those of the third conjugation are so various in their form, and incapable of being reduced to one plain rule; it seems better in practice, as Dr. Lowth justly observes, to consider the first in ed as the only regular form, and the other as deviations from it; after the example of the Saxon and German Grammarians,

• The whole number of words, in the English language, is about thirty-five thousand..

Before we close the account of the verbs, it may afford instruction to the learners, to be informed, more particularly than they have been, that different nations have made use of different contrivances for marking the tenses and moods of their verbs. The Greeks and Latins distinguish them, as well as the cases of their nouns, adjectives, and participles, by varying the termination, or otherwise changing the form, of the word; retaining, however, those radical letters, which prove the inflection to be of the same kindred with its root. The modern tongues, particularly. the English, abound in auxiliary words, which vary the meaning of the noun, or the verb, without requiring any consideral»le varieties of inflection. Thus, I do love, I did love, I have loved, I had loved, I shall love, have the same import with amo, amabam, amavi, amaveram, cimabo. It is obvious, that a language, like the Greek and Latin, lvhich can thus comprehend in one word the meaning of two or three words, must have some advantages over those which are not so comprehensive. Perhaps, indeed, it may not be more perspicuous; bụt, in the arrangement of words, and consequently in harmony and energy, as well as in conciseness, it may be much more elegant. - See the THIRD edit. of the Octavo Grammar, puges 172-176, on the theory, respecting the Inflections of language.


Of ADVERBS. An Adverb is a part of speech joined to a verb, an adjective, and sometimes to another adverb, to express some quality or circumstance respecting it: as, “ He reads well;" 66 A truly good man;" • He writes very correctly."

Some adverbs are compared, thus; “ Soon, sooner, soonest;" “ often, oftener, oftenest."* Those ending in ly, are compared by more, and most: as, “ Wisely, more wisely, most wisely."

Adverbs seem originally to have been contrived to ex. press compendiously in one word, what must otherwise have required two or more: as, “ He acted wisely," for he acted with wisdom; “ prudently,” for, with prudence; “ He did it here;" for, he did it in this place; “ exceedingly,” for, to a great degree ; “ often and seldom," for many, and for few times; “ very,” for, in an eminent degree, &c.

There are many words in the English language that are sometimes used as adjectives, and sometimes as adverbs : as, “ More men than women were there ;" or, “ I am more diligent than he." In the former sentence more is evidently an adjective, and in the latter, an adverb. There are others that are sometimes used as substantives, and sometimes as adverbs: as, “ To-day's lesson is longer than yesterday's;" here to-day and yesterday are substantives, because they are words that make sense of themselves, and admit besides of a genitive case: but in the phrase, “ He came home yesterday, and sets out again to-day,” they are adverbs of time; because they answer to the question when. The adverb much is used as all three: as, “Where much is given, much is required;" “ Much money has been expended ;”. “ It is much better to go than to stay." In the first of these sentences, much is a substantive; in the second, it is an adjective; and in the third, an adverb. In short, nothing but the sense can determine what they are.

Adverbs, though very numerous, may be reduced to certain classes, the chief of which are those of Number, Order, Place, Time, Quantity, Manner or Quality, Doubt, Affirmation, Negation, Interrogation, and Comparison.

1. Of number : as, “ Once, twice, thrice,” &c.

2. Of order : as, “ First, secondly, thirdly, fourthly, fifthly, lastly, finally,” &c.

3. Of place : as “ Here, there, where, elsewhere, anywhere, somewhere, nowhere, herein, whither, hither,

thither upward, downward, forward; backward, whence, · Ibence, thence, whithersoever," izce

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