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4. Of time.
Of time past: as, “ Already, before, lately, yesterday, heretofore, hitherto, long since, long ago," &c.
Of time to come : as, “ To-morrow, not yet, hereafter, henceforth, henceforward, by and by, instantly, presently, immediately, straightways," &c.
Of time indefinite : as, “Ost, often, oft-times, oftentimes, sometimes, soon, seldom, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly, always, when, then, ever, never, again,” &c.
5. Of quantity: as, “. Much, little, sufficiently, how much, how great, enough, abundantly,” &c.
6. Of manner or quality: as, “ Wisely, foolishly, justly, unjustly, quickly, slowly,” &c. Adverbs of quality are the" : most numerous kind; and they are generally formed by adding the termination ly to an adjective or participle, or changing le into ly: as, “ Bad, badly; cheerful, cheerfully; able, ably; admirable, admirably.”
7. Of doubt: as, “Perhaps, peradventure, possibly, perchance."
8. Of affirmation: as, “ Verily, truly, undoubtedly, doubtless, certainly, yea, yes, surely, indeed, really,” &c.
9. Of negation: as, “Nay, no, not, by no means, not at all, in no wise,” &c. ,
10. Of interrogation: as, “ How, why, wherefore, whether,” &c.
11. Of comparison: as, “ More, most, better, best, worse, worst, less, least, very, almost, little, alike,” &c.
Besides the adverbs already mentioned, there are many which are formed by a combination of several of the prepositions with the adverbs of place here, there, and where : as, “ Hereof, thereof, whereof; hereto, thereto, whereto; hereby, thereby, whereby; herewith, therewith, wherewith; herein, therein, wherein; therefore, (i. e. there-for,) wherefore, (i. e. where-for,j hereupon or hereon, thereupon or thereon, whereupon or whereon, &c. Except therefore, these are seldom used.
In some instances the preposition suffers no change, but becomes an adverb merely by its application: as when we say, “he rides about;" “ he was near falling;" “ but do not after lay the blame on me.”
There are also some adverbs, which are composed of nouns, and the letter a used instead of at, on, &c.; as, “ Aside, athirst, afoot, ahead, asleep, aboard, ashore, abed, aground, afloat,” &c.
The words when and where, and all others of the same , nature, such as, whence,' whither, whenever, wherever, &c. may be properly called adverbial conjunctions, because they participate the nature both of adverbs and conjunctions: of conjunctions, as they conjoin sentences; of adverbs, as they denote the attributes either of time, or of place.
It may be particularly observed with respect to the word therefore, that it is an adverb, when, without joining sentences, it only gives the sense of, for that reason. When it gives that sense, and also connects, it is a conjunction: as, “ He is good, therefore he is happy.” The same observation may be extended to the words consequently, accordingly, and the like. When these are subjoined to and, or joined to if, since, &c. they are adverbs, the connexion being made without their help: when they appear single, and unsupported by any other connective, they may be called conjunctions.
The inquisitive scholar may naturally ask, what necessity there is for adverbs of time, when verbs are provided with tenses, to show that circumstance. The answer is, though tenses may be sufficient to denote the greater distinctions of time, yet, to denote them all by the tenses would be a perplexity without end. What a variety of forms must be given to the verb, to denote yesterday, to-day, tomorrow, formerly, lately, just now, now, immediately, presently, soon, hereafter, &c. It was this considesation that made the adverbs of time necessary, over and above the tenses.
Of PREPOSITIONS. PREPOSITIONS serve to connect words with one another, and to show the relation between them. They are, for the most part, put before nouns and pronouns: as, “ He went from London to York;" “ She is above disguise;" “ They are instructed by him.”
The following is a list of the principal prepositions: Of into above at
within below near on or upon for without between up among by over beneath down
after with under from before about in through beyond behind against
Verbs are often compounded of a verb and a preposition; as, to uphold, to invest, to overlook: and this composition sometimes gives a new sense to the verb; as, to understand, to withdraw, to forgive. But in English, the preposition is more frequently placed after the verb, and separately from it, like an adverb, in which situation it is not less apt to affect the sense of it, and to give it a new meaning; and may still be considered as belonging to the verb, and as a part of it. As, to cast, is to throw; but to cast up, or to compute, an account, is quite a different thing: thus, to fall on, to bear.out, to give over, &c. So that the meaning of the verb, and the propriety of the phrase, depend on the preposition subjoined.
In the composition of many words, there are certain syllables employed, which Grammarians have called inseparable prepositions: as, be, con, mis, &c. in bedeck, conjoin, inistake: but as they are not words of any kind, they cannot properly be called a species of preposition.
One great use of prepositions, in English, is, to express those relations, which, in some languages, are chiefly marked by cases, or the different endings of nouns. See page 54. The necessity and use of them will appear from the following examples. If we say, “ he writes a pen,” “they ran the river,” “ the tower fell the Greeks,” “ Lambeth is Westminster-abbey,” there is observable, in each of these expressions, either a total want of connexion, or such a connexion as produces falsehood or nonsense: and it is evident, that, before they can be turned into sense, the vacancy must be filled up by some connecting word: as thus, “ He writes with a pen;" “ they ran towards the river;" 46 the tower fell upon the Greeks ;> “ Lambeth is over against Westminster-abbey.” We see by these instances, how prepositions may be necessary to connect those words, which in their signification are not naturally connected.
Prepositions, in their original and literal acceptation, seem to have denoted relations of place; but they are now used figuratively to express other relations. For ex:ample, as they who are above have in several respects the advantage of such as are below, prepositions expressing high and low places are used for superiority and inferiority in general: as, “ He is above disguise;" " we serve under a good master;" “ he rules over a willing people;" “ we should do nothing beneath our character.” ,
The importance of the prepositions will be further perceived by the explanation of a few of them.
Of denotes possession or belonging, an effect or consequence, and other relations connected with these: as, 66 The house of my friend;" that is, « the house belonging to my friend;" “ He died of a fever;" that is, “ in consequence of a fever.”
To, or unto, is opposed to from; as, “ He rode from Salisbury to Winchester.”
For indicates the cause or motive of any action or circumstance, &c. as, “He loves her for (that is, on account of) her amiable qualities.”
By is generally used with reference to the cause, agent, means, &c.; as, “ He was killed by a fall:" that is, “ a fall was the cause of his being killed;" “ This house was built by him;" that is, “ he was the builder of it."
Witti denotes the act of accompanying, uniting, &c: as, “ We will go with you;" « They are on good terms with each other." With also alludes to the instrument or means; as, “ He was cut with a knife.”
In relates to time, place, the state or manner of being or acting, &c.: as, “ He was born in (that is, during) the year 1720;" “ He dwells in the city;" “ She lives in affluence.”
Into is used after verbs that imply motion of any kind: as, “He retired into the country;" “ Copper is converted into brass.”
Within, relates to something comprehended in any place er time: as, “ They are within the house;" “ He began and finished his work within the limited time.”
The signification of without is opposite to that of within: as, “ She stands without the gate:" But it is more frequently opposed to with; as, “ You may go without me.”
The import and force of the remaining prepositions will be readily understood, without a particular detail of them. We shall, therefore, conclude this head with observing, that there is a peculiar propriety in distinguishing the use of the prepositions by and with; which is observable in sentences like the following: “ He walks with a staff by moonlight;" “ He v:as taken by stratagem, and killed with a sword.” Put the one preposition for the other, and say, “he walks by a staff with moonlight;" “ he was taken with stratagem, and killed by a sword;” and it will appear, that they differ in signification more tharì one, at first view, would be apt to imagine.
Some of the prepositions have the appearance and effect of conjunctions; as, “ After their prisons were thrown
open," &c. « Before I die;" “ They made haste to be · prepared against their friends arrived :" but if the noun