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time, which is understood, be added, they will lose their conjunctive form ;-as, “ After [the time when] their prisons,” &c.

The prepositions after, before, above, beneath, and several others, sometimes appear to be adverbs, and may be so considered: as, “ They had their reward soon after;" " He died not long before;” “ He dwells above :" but if the nouns time and place be added, they will lose their aclverbial form; as, “ He died not long before that time,&c.



A CONJUNCTION is a part of speech that is chiefly used to connect sentences; so as, out of two or more sentences, to make but one. It sometimes connects only words.

Conjunctions are principally divided into two sorts, the coPULATIVE and the disJUNCTIVE.

The Conjunction Copulative serves to connect or to continue a sentence, by expressing an addition, a supposition, a cause, &c. : as, “ He and his brother reside in London;" “ I will go if he will accompany me;" “ You are happy, because you are good.”

The Conjunction Disjunctive serves, not only to connect and continue the sentence, but also to express opposition of meaning in different degrees : as, Though he was frequently reproved, yet he did not reform;" " They came with her, but they went away without her.”

The following is a list of the principal Conjunctions. The Copulative. And, if, that, both, then, since, for,

· because, therefore, wherefore. The Disjunctive. But, or, nor, as, than, lest, though,

unless, either, neither, yet, notwithstanding.

The same word is occasionally used both as a conjunction and as an adverb; and sometimes, as a preposition. “ I rest then upon this argument;" then is here a conjunction: in the following phrase, it is an adverb;.“ He arrived ther, and not before.” “I submitted ; for it was vain to resist :” in this sentence, for is a conjunction; in the next, it is a preposition : “ He contended for victory only.” In the first of the following sentences, since is a conjunction; in the second, it is a preposition; and in the third, an adverb: “ Since we must part, let us do it peaceably:" " I have not seen him since that time:” “ Our friendship commenced long since."

Relative pronouns, as well as conjunctions, serve to connect sentences: as, “ Blessed is the mau who feareth the Lord, and keepeth his commandments.” .

A relative pronoun possesses the force both of a pronolin and a connective. Nay, the union by relatives is rather closer, than that by mere conjunctions. The latter may form two or more sentences into one; but, by the former, se. veral sentences may incorporate in one and the same clause of a sentence. Thus, “ thou seest a man, and he is called ... Peter,” is a sentence consisting of two distinct clauses, united by the copulative and: but, “the man whom thou seest is called Peter," is a sentence of one clause, and not less comprehensive than the other.

Conjunctions very often unite sentences, when they appear to unite only words; as in the following instances: “..Duty and interest forbid vicious indulgences;” “ Wise dom or folly governs us." Each of these forms of expression contains two sentences, namely; “ Duty forbids vicious indulgences; interest forbids vicious indulgences;" “ Wisdom governs us, or folly governs us.”

Though the conjunction is commonly used to connect sentences together, yet, on some occasions, it merely connects words, not sentences : as, “ The king and queen are an amiable pair; where the affirmation cannot refer to each; it being absurd to say, that the king or the queen only

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is an amiable pair. So in the instances, “two and two are four;" “ the fifth and sixth volumes will complete the set of books.” Prepositions also, as before observed, connect. words; but they do it to show the relation which the connected words have to each other: conjunctions, when they unite words only, are designed to show the relations, which those words, so united, have to other parts of the sentence."

As there are many conjunctions and connective phrases... appropriated to the coupling of sentences, that are never:. employed in joining the members of a sentence; so there are several conjunctions appropriated to the latter use, which are never employed in the former; and some that . are equally adapted to both those purposes : as, again, further, besides, &c. of the first kind; than, lest, unless, that, . so that, &c. of the second; and but, and, for, therefore, &e. of the last.

We shallclose this chapter with a few observations on the peculiar use and advantage of the conjunctions; a subject which will, doubtless, give pleasure to the ingenious student, and expand his views of the importance of his grammatical studies.

« Relatives are not so useful in language, as conjunctions. The former make speech more concise; the latter make it more explicit. Relatives comprehend the mean ing of a pronoun and conjunction copulative: conjunctions, while they couple sentences, may also express opposition, inference, and many other relations and dependences.

Till men began to think in a train, and to carry their reasonings to a considerable length, it is not probable that they would make much use of conjunctions, or of any other connectives. Ignorant people, and children, generally speak in short and separate sentences. The same thing is true of barbarous nations : and hence uncultivated languages are not well supplied with connecting partieles. The Greeks were the greatest reasoners that ever appeared in the world ; and their language, accordingly, abounds. more than any other in connectives.

Conjunctions are not equally necessary in all sorts of writing. In poetry, where great conciseness of phrase is required, and every appearance of formality avoided, many of them would have a bad effect. In passionate language too, it may be proper to omit them: because it is the nature of violent passion, to speak rather in disjointed sentences, than in the way of inference and argument. Books of aphorisms, like the Proverbs of Solomon, have few connectives ; because they instruct, not by reasoning, but in detached observations. And narrative will sometimes appear very graceful, when the circumstances are plainly told, with scarcely any other conjunction than the -simple copulative and: which is frequently the case in the historical parts of Scripture. When narration is full of images or events, the omission of connectives may, by

crowding the principal words upon one another, give a --sort of picture of hurry and tumult, and so heighten the vivacity of description. But when facts are to be traced down through their consequences, or upwards to their causes; when the complicated designs of mankind are to be laid open, or conjectures offered concerning them ; when the historian argues either for the elucidation of truth, or in order to state the pleas and principles of contending parties; there will be occasion for every species of connective, as much as in philosophy itself. In fact, it is in argument, investigation, and science, that this part of speech is peculiarly and indispensably necessary."



INTERJECTIONS are words thrown in between the parts of a sentence, to express the passions or emotions of the speaker: as, “ Oh! I have alienated my friend; alas! I fear for life.” • O virtue! how amiable thou art !”

· The English Interjections, as well as those of other languages, are comprised within a small compass. They are of different sorts, according to the different passions which they serve to express. Those which intimate earnestness or grief, are, O! oh! ah! alas! Such as are expressive of contempt, are pish! tush! of wonder, heigh! really! strange! of calling, hem! ho ! soho ! of aversion or disgust, foh! fie! away! of a call of the attention, lo! behold! hark ! of requesting silence, hush! hist! of salutation, welcome! hail! all hail! Besides these, several others, frequent in the mouths of the multitude, might be enumerated ; but, in a grammar of a cultivated tongue, it is unnecessary to expatiate on such expressions of passion, as are scarcely worthy of being ranked among the branches of artificial language. -See the Octavo Grammar.


Of Derivation. SECTION 1. Of the various ways in which words are de

rived from one another. Having treated of the different sorts of words, and their various modifications, which is the first part of Etymology, it is now proper to explain the methods by which one word is derived from another.

Words are derived from one another in various ways,

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1. Substantives are derived from verbs.

2. Verbs are derived from substantives, adjectives, and sometimes from adverbs.

3. Adjectives are derived from substantives. 4. Substantives are derived from adjectives. 5. Adverbs are derived from adjectives.

1. Substantives are derived from verbs:' as, from " to love," comes “ lover;" from “to visit, visiter;" from "s to survive, surviver ;" &c.

In the following instances, and in many others, it is difficult to determine whether the verb was deduced

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