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from the noun, or the noun from the verb, riz. “Love, to love; hate, to hate; fear, to fear; sleep, tu sleep; walk, to walk; ride, to ride; act, to act ;" &c.
2. Verbs are derived from substantives, adjectives, and sometimes from adverbs: as, from the substantive salt, comes “to salt;" from the adjective warm, “ to warm ;" and from the adverb forward, “ to forward.” Sometimes they are formed by lengthening the vowel, or softening the consonant; as, from, “ grass, to graze :” sometimes by adding en; as, from “length, to lengthen;" especially to adjectives: as, from “short, to shorten; bright, to brighten."
3. Adjectives are derived from substantives, in the following manner: Adjectives denoting plenty are derived from substantives by adding y: as, from “Health, healthy; wealth, wealthy; might, mighty,” &c.
Adjectives denoting the matter out of which any thing is made, are derived from substantives by adding en: as, from “ Oak, oaken; wood, wooden; wool, woollen,” &c.
Adjectives denoting abundance are derived from substantives, by adding ful: as,' from “Joy, joyful; sin, sinful; fruit, fruitful,” &c.
Adjectives denoting plenty, but with some kind of diminution, are derived from substantives, by adding some : as, from “ Light, lightsome; trouble, troublesome; toil, toilsome,” &c.
Adjectives denoting want are derived from substantives, by adding less: as, from “ Worth, worthless;" from “ care, careless ; joy, joyless,” &c.
Adjectives denoting likeness are derived from substantives, by adding ly: as, from “ Man, manly; earth, earthly; court, courtly,” &c.
Some adjectives are derived from other adjectives, or from substantives, by adding ish to them; which termination', when added to adjectives, imports diminution, or lessening the quality: as, “White, whitish ;” i. e. somewhat white. When added to substantives, it signifies similitude or tendency to a character: as, “ Child, childish; thief, thievish.”
Some adjectives are formed from substantives or verbs, by adding the termination able ; and those adjectives signify capacity: as, “ Answer, answerable; to change, changeable."
4. Substantives are derived from adjectives, sometimes by adding the termination ness: as, “White, whiteness ; swift, swiftness:" sometimes by adding th or t, and making a small change in some of the letters: as, “Long, length; high, height.”
5. Adverbs of quality are derived from adjectives, by adding ly, or changing le into ly; and denote the same quality as the adjectives from which they are derived: as, from “ base," comes“ basely;" from “ slow, slowly;" from “ able, ably.”
There are so many other ways of deriving words from one another, that it would be extremely difficult, and nearly impossible, to enumerate them. The primitive words of any language are very few; the derivatives form much the greater number. A few more instances only can be given here.
Some substantives are derived from other substantives, by adding the terminations hood or head, ship, ery, wick, rick, dom, ian, ment, and age.
Substantives ending in hood or head, are such as signify character or qualities ; as, “ Manhood, knighthood, false hood,” &c.
Substantives ending in ship, are those that signify office, employment, state, or condition: as, “Lordship, stewardship, partnership,” &c. Some substantives in ship, are derived from adjectives: as, “ Hard, hardship,” &c.
Substantives which end in ery, signify action or habit: as, “Slavery, foolery, prudery,” &c Some substantives of this sort come from adjectives; as, “ Brave, bravery,” &c.
Substantives ending in wick, rick, and dom, denote de
minion, jurisdiction, or condition: as, “Bailiwick, bishoprick, kingdom, dukedom, freedom,” &c. .
Substantives which end in ian, are those that signify profession; as, “ Physician, musician,” &c. Those that end in inent and age, come generally from the French, and common·ly signify the act or habit; as, “ Commandment, usage.”
Some substantives ending in ard, are derived from verbs or adjectives, and denote character or habit: as, “Drunk, drunkard; dote, dotard."
Some substantives have the form of diminutives; but these are nat many. They are formed by adding the terminations, kin, ling, ing, ock, el, and the like: as, “ Lamb, lambkin; goose, gosling ; duck, duckling; hill, hillock; cock, cockerel," &c.
That part of derivation which consists in tracing English words to the Saxon, Greek, Latin, French, and other languages, must be omitted, as the English scholar is not supposed to be acquainted with these languages. The best English dictionaries will, however, furnish some information on this head, to those who are desirous of obtaining it. The learned Horne Tooke, in his “ Diversions of Purley,” has given an ingenious account of the derivation and meaning of many of the adverbs, conjunctions, and prepositions.
It is highly probable that the system of this acute grammarian, is founded in truth; and that adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions, are corruptions or abbreviations of other parts of speech. But as many of them are derived from obsolete words in our own language, or from words in kindred languages, the radical meaning of which is, therefore, either obscure, or generally unknown; as the system of this very able etymologist is not universally admitted; and as, by long prescription, whatever may have been their origin, the words in question appear to have acquired a title to the rank of distinct species; it seems proper to consider them, as such, in an elementary treatise of grammar : especially as this plan coincides with that, by which other 1ănguages must be taught; and will render the study of them less intricate. It is of small moment, by what names and classification we distinguish these words, provided their meaning and use are well understood. A philosophical consideration of the subject, may, with great propriety, be entered upon by the grammatical student, when bis knowledge and judgment become more improved... dj.; ; . SECTION 2. A sketch of the steps, by which the English
Language has risen to its present state of refinement. BEFORE We conclude the subject of derivation, it will probably be gratifying to the curious scholar, to be informed of some particulars respecting the origin of the English language, and the various nations to which it is 'indebted for the copiousness, elegance, and refinement, which it has now attained.
" When the ancient Britons were so harassed and oppressed by the invasions of their northern neighbours, the Scots and Picts, that their situation was truly miserable, they sent an embassy (about the middle of the fifth century) to the Saxons, a warlike people inhabiting the north of Germany, with solicitations for speedy relief. The Saxons accordingly came over to Britain, and were successful in repelling the incursions of the Scots and Picts; but seeing the weak and defenceless state of the Britons, they resolved to take advantage of it; and at length estáblished themselves in the greater part of South-Britain, after having dispossessed the original inhabitants.
w From these barbarians, who founded several petty kingdoms in this island, and introduced their own laws, language, and manners, is derived the groundwork of the English language; which, even in its present state of cultivation, and notwithstanding the successive augmentations and improvements, which it has received through various channels, displays very conspicuous traces of its Saxon original.
The Saxons did not long remain in quiet possession of the kingdom; for before the middle of the ninthi cea tury, the Danes, a hardy and adventurous kation, who had long infested the northern seas with their piracies, began to ravage the English coasts. Their first attempts were, in general, attended with such success, that they were eticouraged to a renewal of their ravages ; 'till, at length, in the beginning of the eleventh century, they made themselves masters of the greater part of England.
« Though the period, during which these invadersoccupied the English throne, was very short, not greatly exceeding half a century, it is highly probable that sonie change was introduced by them into the language spoken by those, whom they had subdued: but this change can. not be supposed to have been very considerable, as the Danish and Saxon languages arose from one common source, the Gothic being the parent of both.
.." The next conquerors of this kingdom, after the Danes, were the Normans, who, in the year 1066, introduced their leader William to the possession of the English throne, This prince, soon after his accession, "endeavoured to bring his own language (the Norman-French) into use among his new subjects; but his efforts were not very successful, as the Saxons entertained å great antipathy to these haughty foreigners. In process of time, however, many Norman words and phrases were incorporated into the Saxon language: but its general form and construction still remained the same. " v. From the Conquest to the Reformation, the fanguage continued to receive occasional accessions of foreign words, till it acquired such a degree of copiousness and strength,
of copiousness and strengthen as to render it-susceptible of that polish, which it has received from writers of taste and genius, in the last and present centuries. During this period, the learned have enriched it with many significant expressions, drawn from the treasures of Greek and Roman literature; the ingeni. ous and the fashionable have imported occasional supplies