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“ The lords and commons are essential branches of the British constitution: the king, with them, forms an excellent frame of government*.”

3. If the singular noķins and pronouns, which are joined together by a copulative conjunction, be of several persons, in making the plural pronoun agree with them in person, the second person takes place of the third, and the first of both: as, “ James, and thou, and I, are attached to our country.” * Thou and he shared it between you."

RULE III. di sini The conjunction disjunctive has an effect contrary to that of the conjunction copulative; for as the verb, noun, or pronoun, is referred to the preceding terms taken separately, it must be in the singular number : as, “ Ignorance or negligence has caused this mistake;" “ John, James, or Joseph, intends to accompany me;" “ There as, in many minds, neither knowledge nor under. standing."

Exercises, p. 74. Key, p. 36.
The following sentences are variations from this rule ;

A man may see a metaphor or an allegory in a picture, as well as read them in a description;": "read it.”; “ Nejther character nor dialogue were yet understood ;".. was yet." “ It must indeed be confessed, that a tampoon or a satire do not carry in them robbery or murder ;' “ does: not carry in it:" " Death, or some wosse misfortune, soon divide them:" It ought to be « divides.", Date: 2016

}. When singular pronouns, or a noun and pronoun, of different persons, are disjunctively connected, the verb. must agree with that person which is placed nearest to it:. as, “I or thou art to blame;" « Thou or I am in faulo; « 1, or thou, or he, is the author of it; “George or by am the person." But it would be better to say; " Eithep: I am to blame, or thou art,” &c. .' .'10056 791 1794

Though the construction will not admit of a plural verb, the sentence would certainly stand better thus : “ The king, the tords, and the commons. form and excellent constitution. »

2. When a disjunctive occurs between a singular noun, or pronoun, and a plural one, the verb is made to agree with the plural noun and pronoun: as, “ Neither poverty nor riches were injurious to him;" “I or they were offended by it.” But in this case, the plural noun or pronoun, when it can conveniently be done, should be placed next to the verb.

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RULE IV.

A noun of multitude, or signifying many, may have a verb, or pronoun agreeing with it, either of the singular or plural number; yet not without regard to the import of the word, as conveying unity or plurality of idea; as, “The meeting was large ;'. « The parliament is dissolved;"> “ The nation 25. powerful ;" « My people do not consider : they have not known me;" * The multitude eagerly pursue pleasure, as their chief good ;" ~ The council were divided in their sen, timents.”

Exercises, p. 75. Key, p. 37. We ought to consider whether the term will immediately suggest the idea of the number it represents, or whether it exhibits to the mind the idea of the whole as one thing. In the former cases the verb ought to be plural; in the latter, it ought to be singular.. Thus, it seems improper to say, “The peasantry goes barefoot, and the middle sort makes use of wooden shoes.” I would be better to saya “ The peasantry go barefoot, and the middle sort make use,” &c. because the idea in both these cases, is that of a number. On the contrary, there is a harshness in the following sentences, in which nouns of number have verbs plural; because the ideas they represent seem not to be sufficiently divided in the mind. “The court of Rome were not without solicitude.” “The house of compons, were of small weight.” “ The house of lords were so much influenced by these reasons." Stephen's party

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were entirely broken up by the captivity of their leader.” “ An army of twenty-four thousand were assembled.” “ What reason have the church of Rome for proceeding in this manner?” “ There is indeed no constitution so tame and careless of their own defence.” “ All the virtues of mankind are to be counted upon a few fingers, but his follies and vices are innumerable.” Is not mankind in this place a noun of multitude, and such as requires the pronoun referring to it to be in the plural number, their ? See the Octavo Grammar.

RULE V. Pronouns must always agree with their antece. dents, and the nouns for which they stand, in gender and number : as, “ This is the friend whom I love;"? " That is the vice which I hate ;" “The king and the queen had put on their robes;" “ The moon appears, and she shines, but the light is not her own." - The relative is of the same person as the antecedent, and the verb agrees with it accordingly: as, “ Thou who lovest wisdom ; " " I who speak from experience.”

Exercises, p. 76. Key, p. 33. Of this rule there are many violations to be niet with; a few of which may be sufficient to put the learner on his guard. Each of the sexes should keep within its particular bounds, and content themselves with the advantages of their particular districts:? better thus:, « The sexes should keep within their particular bounds, &c. “ Can any one, on their entrance into the world, be fully secure that they shall not be deceived?" "on his entrance,” and " that he shall.” “One should not think too favourably of ourselves ;” “ of one's self.” “ He had one acquaintance which poisoned his principles;” who poisoned.” . Every relative must have an antecedent to which it refers, either expressed or implied: as, “ Who is fatal to

others is so to himself;" that is, the man who is fatal to others."

Who, which, what, and the relative that, though in the objective case, are always placed before the verb; as are also their compounds, whoever, whosoever, &c.; as, “He whom ye seek ;” “This is what, or the thing which, or that, you want;” “Whomsoever you please to appoint.”

What is sometimes applied, in a manner which appears, to be exceptionable: as, “ All fevers, except what are called nervous,” &c. It would at least be better to say, “ except those which are called nervous.”

1. Personal pronouns being used to supply the place of the noun, are not employed in the same part of a sentence as the noun which they represent; for it would be improper to say, “The king he is just ;" “ I saw her the queen;" “ The men they were there ;” “Many words they darken speech ;”, “My banks they are furnished with bees.” These personals are superfluous, as there is very seldom any occasion for a substitute in the same part where the principal word is present. The nominative case they, in the following sentence, is also superfluous; “Who, instead of going about doing good, they are perpetually intent upon doing mischief.”

2. The pronoun that is frequently applied to persons as well as to things; but after an adjective in the superlative degree, and after the pronominal adjective same, it is generally used in preference to who or which: as, “ Charles XII. king of Sweden, was one of the greatest madmen that the world ever saw;" “ Catiline's followers were the most prom fligate that could be found in any city.” “ He is the same man that we saw before.” There are cases wherein we cannot conveniently dispense with this relative as applied to persons : as first, after who the interrogative; “Who that has any sense of religion, would have argued thus?" Secondly, when persons make but a part of the antecedenti “ The woman, and the estate, that became his portion were

too much for his moderation.” In neither of these examples could any other relative have been used. · We

3. The pronouns whichsoever, whosoever, and the like, are elegantly divided by the interposition of the corresponding substantives: thus, “On whichsoever side the king cast his eyes ;" would have sounded better, if written, “ OR which side soever,” &c.

4. Many persons are apt, in conversation, to put the objective case of the personal pronouns, in the place of these and those ; as, “Give me them books ;" instead of " those books,” We may sometimes find this fault even in writing: as, “ Observe them three there." We also frequently meet with those instead of they, at the beginning of a sentence, and where there is no particular reference to an antecedent; as, Those that sow in tears, sometimes reap in joy." They that, or they who sow in tears.

It is not, however, always easy to say, whether a per. sonal pronoun or a demonstrative is preferable, in certain constructions. “We are not unacquainted with the calumny of them (or those] who openly make use of the warmest professions,”

5. In some dialects, the word what is improperly used for that, and sometimes we find it in this sense in writing : “ They will never believe but what I have been entirely to blame.” “ I am not satisfied but what,” &c. instead of “but that." The word somewhat, in the following sentence, seems to be used improperly. "These punishments seem to have been exercised in somewhat an arbitrary manner."" Sometimes we read, “In somewhat of.”. The meaning is, " in a manner which is in some respects arbitrary:

6. The pronoun relative who is so much appropriated to persons, that there is generally harshness in the application of it, except to the proper names of persons, or the general terms man, woman, &c. A term which only implies the idea of persons, and expresses them by some circumstance

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