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object of action, comes after such verbs, though it may carry the appearance of being governed by them, it is af-. fected by a preposition or some other word understood : as, “ He resided many years (that is, for or during many years] in that street ;" “ He rode several miles (that is, for or through the space of several miles] on that day;" “ He lay an hour [that is, during an hour] in great torture.” In the phrases, “ To dream a dream," “ To live a virtuous life,” “ To run a race," “ To walk the horse,” “ To dance the child,” the verbs certainly assume a transitive form, and may not, in these cases, be impro- , perly denominated transitive verbs.
1. Some writers, however, use certain neuter verbs as if they were transitive, putting after them the objective case, agreeably to the French construction of reciprocal verbs; but this custom is so foreign to the idiom of the English tongue, that it ought not to be adopted or imitated. The following are some instances of this practice. “Repenting him of his design." " The king soon found reason to repent him of his provoking such dangerous enemies.” “ The popular lords did not fail to enlarge themselves on the subject.” “ The nearer his successes approached him to the throne.” “Go flee thee away into the land of Judah." “I think it by no means a fit and decent thing to vie charities," &c. “ They have spent their whole time and pains to agree the sacred with the profane chronology.".
2. Active verbs are sometimes as improperly made neuter; as, “ I must premise with three circumstances.” “ Those that think to ingratiate with him by calumniating me.”
3. The neuter verb is varied like the active; but, having in some degree the nature of the passive, it admits, in many instances, of the passive form, retaining still the neuter signification, chiefly in such verbs as signify some sort of motion, or change of place or condition: as, “ I am come; I was gone; I am grown ; I was fallen.” The following examples, however, appear to be erroneous, in giving the neuter verbs a passive form, instead of an active
one. " The rule of our holy religion, from which we are infinitely swerved.” “ The whole obligation of that law and covenant was also ceased.” “Whose number was now amounted to three hundred.” “This mareschal, upon some discontent, was entered into a conspiracy against his master.” " At the end of a campaign, when half the men are deserted or killed.” It should be,“ have swerved, had ceased," &c.
4. The verb to be, through all its variations, has the same case after it, as that which next precedes it: " I am he whom they invited;" “ It may be (or might have been) he, but it cannot be (or could not have been) 1;" “ It is impossible to be they;" “ It seems to have been he, who conducted himself so wisely;"! “ It appeared to be she that transacted the business ;" “ I understood it to be him;" “ I believe it to have been them;" “ We at first took it to be her ; but were afterwards convinced that it was not she.” “He is not the person who it seemed he was.” “He is really the person who he appeared to be.” “She is not now the woman whom they represented her to have been.” « Whom do you fancy him to be?” By these examples, it appears that this substantive verb has no government of case, but sérves, in all its forms, as a conductor to the cases; so that the two cases which, in the construction of the sentence, are the next before and after it, must always be alike. Perhaps this subject will be more intelligible to the learner, by obserying, that the words in the cases pre ceding and following the verb to be, may be said to be in apposition to each other. Thus, in the sentence, “ I understood it to be him,” the words it and him are in apposition; that is, « they refer to the same thing, and are in the same case.”
The following sentences contain deviations from the rule, and exhibit the pronoun in a wrong case: “ It might have been him, but there is no proof of it;" « Though I was blamed, it could not have been me;" " I saw one whom I took to be she;" “ She is the person who I unders stood it to have been;" " Who do you think me to be?”
* Whom do men say that I am?” “ And whom think ye that I am?”_ See the Octado Grammar.
Passive verbs which signify naming, &c. have the same case before and after them: as, “ He was called Cæsar ; She was named Penelope ; Homer is styled the prince of poets; James was created a duke; The general was saluted emperor; The professor was appointed tutor to the prince*.”
5. The auxiliary let governs the objective case: as, “ Let him beware;” « Let us judge candidly;" “ Let them not presume;" * Let George study his lesson."
RULE XII. One verb governs another that follows it, or de pends upon it, in the infinitive mood : as, “ Cease to do evil ; learn to do well;" “ We should be prepared to render an account of our actions."
The preposition to, though generally used before the latter verb, is sometimes properly omitted: as, * I heard him say it;" instead of “ to say it."
Exercises, p. 94. Key, p. 56. The verbs which have commonly other verbs following them in the infinitive mood, without the sign to, are Bid, dare, need, make, see, hear, feel; and also, let, not used as an auxiliary; and perhaps a few others: as, “ I bade him do it;" “ Ye dare not do it;” “ I saw him do it ;" “ I heard him say it:" «Thou lettest him go.”
1. In the following passages, the word to, the sign of the infinitive mood, where it is distinguished by Italic cha: racters, is superfluous and impropter. “ I have observed some satirists to use," &c. " To see so many to make so little conscience of so great a sin.” “ It cannot but be a delightful spectacle to God and angels, to see a young person, besieged by powerful temptations on every side, to acquit himself gloriously, and resolutely to hold out against the most violent assaults; to behold one in the prime and flower of his age, that is courted by pleasures and honours, by the devil, and all the bewitching vanities of the world, to reject all these, and to cleave steadfastly unto God."
See English Exercises, 19ih edil. p. 93. The Note.
This mood has also been improperly used in the follows ing places: “ I am not like other men, to envy the tas lents I cannot reach.”. “Grainmarians have denied, or at least doubted, them to be genuine.” “ That all our doings may be ordered by thy governance, to do always what is righteous in thy sight.”
The infinitive is frequently governed by adjectives, substantives, and participles: as, “ He is eager to learn;" « She is worthy to be loved;" “ They have a desire to improve;" « Endeavouring to persuade."
The infinitive mood has much of the nature of a substantive, expressing the action itself which the verb signifies, as the participle has the nature of an adjective. Thus the infinitive mood does the office of a substantive in different cases: in the nominative; as, “ To play is pleasant:' in the objective: as, “ Boys love to play;" “ For to will is present with më; but to perform that which is good, I find not.",
The infinitive mood is often made absolute, or used independently on the rest of the sentence, supplying the place of the conjunction that with the potential mood: as, “ To confess the truth, I was in fault;" “ To begin with the first;" « To proceed;" “ To conclude;" that is, * That I may confess," &c.
RULE XIII. In the use of words and phrases which, in point of time, relate to each other, a due regard to that relation should be observed. Instead of saying, 166 The Lord hath given, and the Lord hath taken away;" we should say, “ The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken away.” Instead of, “ I remember the family more than twenty years; it should be, “ I have remembered the family more than twenty
Exercises, p. 95. Rey, p. 57. It is not easy to give particular rules for the management of the moods and tenses of verbs with respect to one ano.
ther, so that they may be proper and consistent. The best rule that can be given, is this very general one, “To observe what the sense necessarily requires.” It may, however, be of use to give a few examples of irregular construction. “ The last week I intended to have written," is a very common phrase; the infinitive being in the past time, as well as the verb which it follows. But it is certainly wrong: for how long soever it now is since I thought of writing, “ to write” was then present to me, and must still be considered as present, when I bring back that time, and the thoughts of it. It ought, therefore, to be, “ The last week I intended to write.” The following sentences are also erroneous: “I cannot excuse the remissness of those whose business it should have been, as it certainly was their interest, to have interposed their good offices.” “There were two circumstances which made it necessary for them to have lost no time.” “ History painters would have found it difficult to have invented such a species of beings.” They ought to be, “ to interpose, to lose, to invent.” « On the morrow, because he should have known the certainty, wherefore he was accused of the Jews, he loosed him.” It ought to be, “ because he would know," or rather, “ being willing to know.” “ The blind man said unto him, Lord, that I might receive my sight.” “ If by any means I might attain unto the resurrection of the dead;" “ may,” in both places, would have been better. “ From his biblical knowledge, he appears to study the Scriptures with great attention;" “ to have studied,” &c. “ I feared that I should have lost it, before I arrived at the city;" “ should lose it." “ I had rather walk;" It should be, “ I would rather walk.” * It would have afforded me po satisfaction, if I could perforin it:" it should be, “ if I could have performed it;" or, 6. It would afford me no satisfaction, if I could perform it,”
To preserve consistency in the time of verbs, we must recollect that, in the subjunctive mood, the present and imperfect tenses often carry with them a future sense; and that the auxiliaries should and would, in the imperfect times,