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3. As the perfect participle and the imperfect tense are's sometimes different in their form, care must be taken thaťd they be not indiscriminately used. It is frequently said, “ He begun,” for “ he began;" he run," for he ran';}}" “ He drunk,” for “ he drank;" the participle being here used instead of the imperfect tense : and much more fre-", quently the imperfect tense instead of the participle! as, " I had wrote,” for “ I had written :" «I was chose," for, “ I was chosen ;” “ I have eat,” for, ** I have eaten.". “ His words were interwove with sighs ;"> or were intera!! muoven.” “ He would have spoke;" " spoken." "He' hath bore witness to his faithful servants ;" “ borne." ~ By this means he over-run his guide;" " over-ran.” “The sun has rose;" “risen.” “ His constitution has been greatly shook, but his mind is too strong to be shook by such" causes ;" « shaken,” in both places. “They were verses wrote on glass ; " " written.” “ Philosophers have often mistook the source of true happiness :" it ought to be “ mistaken."
The participle ending in ed is often improperly contracted by changing ed into t; as, “In good behaviour, he is not surpast by any pupil of the school.” “ She was much clistrest.", They ought to be " surpassed,” « distressed."
RULE XV. . Adverbs, though they have no government of case, tense, &c. require an appropriate situation in the sentence, viz. for the most part, before adjectives, after verbs active or neuter, and frequently between the auxiliary and the verb: as, " He made a very sensible discourse; he spoke un.. affectedly and forcibly, and was attentively heard by the whole assembly.”
in. Exercises, p. 100. Key, p. 66. Ila Il 1741
A few instances of erroneous positions of adverbs may serve to illustrate the rule. , “ He must not expect to find study agreeable always ;”.“ always agreeable.” “We always find them ready when we want them;" “ we find them always ready,” &c. “ Dissertations on the prophe
cies which haye remarkably been fulfilled;" " which have been remarkably.” “ Instead of looking contemptuously down on the crooked in mind or in body, we should look up thankfully to God, who hath made us better;" “instead of looking down contemptuously, &c. we should thankfully look up,” &c. “ If thou art blessed naturally with a good memory, continually exercise it;” “naturally blessed," dc. “ exercise it continually."
Soinetimes the adverb is placed with propriety before the verb, or at some distance after it; sometimes between the two auxiliaries ; and sometimes after them both; as in the following examples. “Vice always creeps by degrees, and insensibly twines around us those concealed fetters, by which we are at last completely bound.” “He encouraged the English Barons to carry their opposition farther." “ They compelled him to declare that he would abjure the realm for ever;" instead of, “ to carry farther their opposition;" and “ to abjure for ever the realm." "He nas generally been reckoned an honest man:" “ The book may always be had at such a place ;" in preference to “ has been generally ;” and “ may be always.", " These rules will be clearly understood, after they have been diligently studied,” are preferable to, “ These rules will clearly be understood, after they have diligently been studied.”
From the preceding remarks and examples, it appears that no exact and determinate rule can be given for the placing of adverbs, on all occasions. The general rule may be of considerable use; but the easy flow and perspicuity of the phrase, arethe things whichought to be chiefly regarded. - The adverb there is often used as an expletive, or as a word that adds nothing to the sense ; in which case it precedes the verb and the nominative noun : as, “ There is a person at the door;" “ There are some thieves in the house;" which would be as well, or better, expressed by saying, * A person is at the door ;" “ Some thieves are in the house." Sometimes, it is made use of to give a small degree of emphasis to the sentence: as, “ There was a man
14 ogiljong - 1
sent from God, whose name was John.” When it is ap plied in its strict sense, it principally follows the verb and the nominative case: as, “ The man stands there.” . !
1. The adverb never generally precedes the verb: as, " I. never was there;" “ He never comes at a proper time.". When an auxiliary is used, it is placed indifferently, either before or after this adverb: as, “ He was never seen (or never was seen.) to laugh from that time.” Never seems to be improperly used in the following passages. “Ask me never so much dowry and gift.” “ If I make my hands never so clean.” “ Charm he never so wisely." The word "ever" would be more suitable to the sense. .
2. In imitation of the French idiom, the adverb of place where, is often used instead of the pronoun relative and a preposition. “They framed a protestation, where they re, peated all their former claims ;' i. e. “ in which they repeated.” “The king was still determined to run forwards, in the same course where he was already, by his precipitate career, too fatally advanced ;" i. e. “ in which he was." But it would be better to avoid this mode of expression.
The adverbs hence, thence, and whence, imply a preposition ; for they signify, “ from this place, from that place, from what place.” It seems, therefore, strictly speaking, to be improper to join a preposition with them, because it is superfluous: as, “ This is the leviathan, from whence the wits of our age are said to borrow their weapons ;" " An ancient author prophesies from hence.” But the origin of these words is little attended to, and the preposition from so often used in construction with them, that the omission of it, in many cases, would seem stiff, and be disagreeable.''
The adverbs here, there, where, are often improperly ap-**.* plied to verbs signifying motion, instead of the adverbs hi-** ther, thither, whither : as, “ He came here hastily;" “ They'e rode there with speed." They should be, “He came 3 hither ;”. «They rode thither,” &c.
3. We have some examples of adverbs being used for substantives: “ In 1687, he erected it into a community of
regulars, since tchen, it has begun to increase in those countriés as a religious order;"' i. e. “since which time.” “A little while and I shall not see you ;" i. e. “ a short time.” " It is worth their while ;" i. e. “it deserves their time and pains." But this use of the word rather suits familiar than grave style. The same may be said of the phrase, “ To do a thing anyhow;" i.e. “ in any manner;" or, “somehow;" i, e, “in some manner.” “Somehow, worthy as these people are, they are under the influence of prejudice." r
RULE XVI. Two negatives, in English, destroy one another, or are equivalent to an affirmative: as, “ Nor did they not perceive him ;” that is, “ they did perceive him.” “ His language, though inclegant, is not ungrammatical;" that is, “ it is grammatical.”
Exercises, p. 102. Key, p. 68. . It is better to express an affirmation, by a regular affirmative, than by two separate negatives, as in the former sentence: but when one of the negatives is joined to another word, as in the latter sentence, the two negatives form a pleasing and delicate variety of expression.
Some writers have improperly employed two negatives instead of one; as in the following instances: “ I never did repent of doing good, nor shall not now ;" “ nor shall I now.” “Never no imitator grew up to his author :" “ never did any,” &c. “ I cannot by no means allow him what his argument must prove;" “I cannot by any means," &c, or, “ I can by no means.” “Nor let no comforter approach me;" “nor let any comforter,” &c. “ Nor is danger ever apprehended in such a government, no more than we commonly apprehend danger from thunder or earthquakęs:" it should be, “ any more." "Ariosto, Tasso, Galileo, no more than Raphael, were not born in repub. lics." "Neither Ariosto, Tasso, nor Galileo, any more than Raphael, was born in a republic."
, '4,183 L:1622 919dw adil to'yi boy 1,0 RULE XVII.,,, povs to sola . Prepositions govern the objective case : as," I
have heard a good character of her;"" From him that is needy turn not away;"! " A word to the , wise, is sufficient for them ;” “We may be good and happy without riches.". ali barviela
Exercises, p. 103. Key, p. 69. 333.5 58 The following are examples of the nominative case being used instead of the objective. “Who servest thou under?" " Who do you speak to?” “ We are still niuch 'at a loss
who civil power belongs to " ( Who dost thou ask for?” *** Associate not with those wlio none can speak well. of."
In all these places it ought to be " whom.” See Note 1. ^. The prepositions to and for are often understood, chiefly
before the pronouns: as, "Give me the book;" "Get me some paper ;" that is, “to me; for me.” “Wo is me;" i. e. “ to me.” “Ile was banished England;" i.e." from · England.”
1. The preposition is often separated from the relative which it governs: as, “ Whom wilt thou give it to?" instead of, “ To whom wilt thou give it ?” “ He is an author whom I am much delighted with ;" “ The world is too polite to shock authors with a truth, which generally their booksellers are the first that inform them of.” This is' an idiom to whicly our language is strongly inclined ; it prevails in common conversation, and suits very well with the
familiar style in writing: but the placing of the preposition . 'before the relative, is more graceful, as well as more per
spicuous, and agrees much better with the solemn wand
elevated style. ; 2. Some writers separate the preposition from its noun, : in order to connect different prepositions with the same
noun : as, “ To suppose the zodiac and planets to be efficient of, and antecedent to, themselves.” This, whether in the familiar or the solemp style, is always inelegant, and should generally be avoided. In forms of law, and the