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like, where fulness and exactness of expression must take place of every other consideration, it may be admitted.
3. Different relations, and different senses, must be ex- pressed by different prepositions, though in conjunction
with the same verb or adjective. Thus we say, “ to converse with a person, upon a subject, in a house," &c. We also say, “ We are disappointed of a thing," when we cannot get it, “ and disappointed in it,” when we have it, and find it does not answer our expectations. But two different prepositions must be improper in the same construc
tion, and in the same sentence: as, “ The combat between 24. thirty French against twenty English."
In some cases, it is difficult to say, to which of two prepositions the preference is to be given, as both are used promiscuously, and custom has not decided in favour of either of them. We say, “ Expert at,” and “ expert in a , thing.” “ Expert at finding a remedy for his mistakes ;" : "Expert in deception.”
. When prepositions are subjoined to nouns, they are generally the same that are subjoined to the verbs from which the nouns are derived : as, “ A compliance with," “ to comply with;" " A disposition to tyranny,” « disposed to tyrannise.” *1*4. As an accurate and appropriate use of the preposition an is, of great importance, we shall select a considerable num
ber of examples of impropriety, in the application of this:
part of speech, now. Ist, With respect to the preposition of " He is resolved -1 of going to the Persian court;" "on going," &c. "He ba was totally dependent of the Papal crown ;"?.“ on the
Papal,” &c. “ Tocall of a person," and " to wait of him” auch on a person," &c. “ He was eager of recommending it unto his fellow citizens,'' “ in recommending," &c. Of is
i sometimes omitted, and sometimes inserted, after worthy: 19:(as," It is worthy observation," or, "of observation." But bosit would have been better omitted in the following sen. edi tences. "The emulatioit, who should serve their country
best, no longer subsists among them, but of who should obuste tain the most lucrative command.” “The'rain hath been art falling of a long time;" “ falling a long time." - 5* It is in situation chiefly which decides of the fortune and charace a ters of meu :” « decides the fortune;” or, “ concerning the 7 fortune.” “ He found the greatest difficulty of writing ;" ** « in writing.” “ It might have given me a greater taste of: its antiquities.” A taste of a thing implies actual enjoy. ment of it; but a taste for it, implies only a capacity for enjoyment. “ This had a much greater share of inciting him, than any regard after his father's commands;" • share in inciting,” and “regard to his father's," &c.
2d, With respect to the prepositions to and for." You have bestowed your favours to the most deserving persons;" “ upon the most deserving,” &c. “ He accused the niinisters for betraying the Dutch :" “ of having betrayed.” “ His abhorrence to that superstitious figure ;" “ of that," &c. " A great change to the better;" “ for the better." “ Your prejudice to my cause;" “ aguinst.” “The English were very different people then to what they are at present;" “ froir what,” &c. “ In compliance to tlie déclaration;" v rvith,” &c. “ It is more than they thought for;" " thought nf.” “ There is no need for it;" " of it.” For is superfluous in the phrase, “ More than he knows for." : “ No discouragement for the authors to proceed;" " to the authors,” &c. “ It was perfectly in compliance to some persons ;" " with.” “The wisest princes need not think it any diminution to their greatness, or derogation to ·! their sufficiency, to rely upon counsel;" “ diminution of." '.:. and “ derogation from.”
3d, With respect to the prepositions with and upon. " • Reconciling himself with the king.” “ Those things. which have the greatest resemblance with each other, fre-lite quently differ the most.” “That such rejection should be 3 consonant with our common nature.” “Conformable with," } &c. “The history of Peter is agreeable with the sacred off texts.” In all the above instances, it should be, "to," inlue stead of faith?t je? It is a úse that perhaps I should not have thought on;":"thought of.” “ A greater quantity may be taken from the heap, without making any sensible alteration upon it;" sin it.” “ Intrusted to persons on whom the parliament could confide;" ~ in whom.” “He was made much on at Argos;" “much of.” “If policy can prevail upon force ;" “ over force." “ I do likewise clissent with the examiner;" " from.”
4th, With respect to the prepositions in, from, &c.— “ They should be informed in some parts of his character ;" “ about,” or “concerning.” “Upon such occasions as fell into their cognizance ;" " under.” “ That variety of factions into which we are still engaged ;” “ in which." “ To restore myself into the favour ;" “ to the favour." “ Could he have profited from repeated experiences ;" “ by.” From seems to be superfluous after forbear : as, “ He could not forbear from appointing the pope,” &c. “ A strict observance after times and fashions;" • of times." “ The character which we may now value ourselves by drawing ;" “upon drawing.” “ Neither of thein shall make me swerve out of the path ;” “ from the path." " Ye blind guides, which strain at a gnat, and swallow a camel ;" it ought to be, “ which strain out a gnat, or, take a gnat out of the liquor by straining it.” The impropriety of the preposition, (as Dr. Lowth justly ob. serves,) has wholly destroyed the meaning of the phrase.
The preposition among generally implies a number of things. It cannot be properly used in conjunction with the word every, which is in the singular number : as, “ Which is found among every species of liberty ;” “The opinion seems to gain ground among every body.”
5. The preposition to is made use of before nouns of place, when they follow verbs and participles of motion; as, “I went to London ;” “ I am going to town.” But the preposition ut is generally used after the neuter verb to be: as, “I have been at London;" “ I was at the place appointed;” “I shall be at Paris." We likewise say: “ He touched, arri
ved at any place.” The preposition in is set before countries, cities, and large towns: as, “ He lives in France, in London, or in Birmingham.” But before villages, single houses, and cities which are in distant countries, at is used; as, " He lives at Hackney;" “ He resides at Montpelier."
It is a matter of indifference with respect to the pronoun one another, whether the preposition of be placed between the two parts of it, or before them both. We may say, ** They were jealous of one another;" or, “ They were jealous one of another;" but perhaps the former is better.
Participles are frequently used as prepositions : as, excepting, respecting, touching, concerning, according. “They were all in fault except or excepting him.”
. RULE XVIII. :ick hits * Conjunctions connect the same moods and tenses of verbs, and cases of nouns and pronouns: as, 6 Candour is to be approved and practised :"06 If thou sincerely desire, and earnestly pursue virtue, she will assuredly be found by thee, and prove a rich reward;" “ The master taught her and me to write;"! 56 He and she were school-fellows *,”
Exercises, p. 107. Key, p. 72. i A few examples of inaccuracy respecting this rule may further display its utility: “If he prefer a virtuous life, and is sincere in his professions, he will succeed ;" “ if he prefers.” “ To deride the miseries of the unhappy, is ini human; and wanting compassion towards them, vis unchristian ;" 6s and to want compassion." “ The parliament addressed the king, and has been prorogued the same day;" " and was prorogued.","His wealth and him bid adieu to each other;"" and he." “ He entreated us, my, comrade and I, to live harmoniously;" "comrade and me." "My sister and her were on good terms;" " and she." "We often overlook the blessings which are in
* This rule refers only to nouns and pronouns, which have the same bearing er felation, with regard to other parts of the sentence. 'o' uw all »
000) 919 i fi our possession, and are searching after those which are out of our reach:” it ought to be,' and search after."!!
1. Conjunctions are, indeed, frequently made to connect different moods and tenses of verbs: bút in these instances the nominative must generally, if not always, be repeated which is not necessary, though it may be done, under the construction to which the rule refers. We may say, “ He lives temperately, and he should live temperately;": " He may return, but he will not continue ;" “ She was proud, though she is now humble;” but it is obvious, that, in such cases, the nominative ought to be repeated ; and that, by this means, the latter members of these sen. tences are rendered not so strictly dependent on the preceding, as those are whicli come under the rule. When, in the progress of a sentence, we pass from the affirmative to the negative form, or from the negative to the affirmative, the subject or nominative is mostly, if not invariably resumed: as, “ He is rich, but he is not respectable.” “ He is not rich, but he is respectable.” There appears to be, in general, equal reason for repeating the nominative, and resuming the subject, when the course of the sentence is diverted by a change of the mood or tense. The following sentences may therefore be improved. “ Anger glances into the breast of a wise man, but will rest only in the bosom of fools;" 6 but rests only;" or, “but it will Test only:" “Virtue is praised by many, and would be - desired also, if her worth were really known;", " and • she would." " The world begins to recede, and will
soon disappear;" " and it will.” See the octavo Grani. mar, RUDE XVII. bid mittsp; . RULE XIX. voi pot Some conjunctions require the indicative, some
the subjunctive mood; after them. It is a general Prule, that when something contingent or doubtful is implied, the subjunctive ought to be used : as,
df I were to write, he would not regard it ;** " He will not be pardoned, unless he repent."