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nothing by it." This variation, however, appears to be improper. Our present version of the Scriptures, which we again refer to, as a good grammatical authority in points of this nature, decides against it. *** If thou knewest the gift,” &c. John iv. 10. “If thou didst receive it, why dost thou glory?" &c. 1 Cor. iv. 7. See also Dan. v. 22. But it is proper to remark, that the form of the verb to be, when used subjunctively in the imperfect tense, is indeed very considerably and properly varied from that which it has in the imperfect of the indicative mood: as the learner will perceive by turning to the conjugation of that verb.

8. It may not be superfluous, also to observe, that the auxiliaries of the potential mood, when applied to the sub junctive, do not change the termination of the second person singular. We properly say, “ If thou mayst or canst go;" “ Though thou mightst live;" “Unless thou couldst read;" “ If thou wouldst learn;" and not “ If thou may or can go,” &c. It is sufficient, on this point, to adduce the authorities of Johnson and Lowth; “ If thou shouldst go;" Johnson.

If thou mayst, mightst, or couldst love;" Lowth. Some authors think, that when that expresses the motive or end, the termination of these auxiliaries should be varied : as, “ I advise thee, that thou may beware ;'' “ He checked thee, that thou should not presume:" but there does not appear to be any ground for this exception. If the expression of “ condition, doubt, contingency,” &c. does not warrant a change in the form of these auxiliaries, why should they have it, when a motive or end is expressed? The translators of the Scriptures do not appear to have made the distinction contended for. “ Thou buildest the wall, that thou mayst be their king,” Neh. vi. 6. “ There is forgiveness with thee, 'that thou mayst be feared." Psalms cxxx. 4.

From the preceding observations under this rule, it apo pears, that with respect to what is termed the present tense of any verb, when the circumstances of contingency and futurity concur, it is proper to vary the terminations

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ENGLISH GRAMMAR. (Rule 19. of the second and third persons singular that without the concurrence of those circumstances, the terminations should not be altered; and that the verb and the auxiliaries of the three past tenses, and the auxiliaries of the first future, undergo no alterations whatever: except the imperfect of the verb to be, which, in cases denoting contingency, is varied in all the persons of the singular number. See p. 90. The Note.

After perusing what has been advanced on this subject, it will be natural for the student to inquire, what is the extent of the subjunctive mood: Some grammarians think it extends only to what is called the present tense of verbs generally, under the circumstances of contingency and futurity ; and to the imperfect tense of the verb to be, when it denotes contingency, &c: because in these tenses only, the form of the verb admits of variation; and they suppose that it is variation merely which constitutes the distinction of moods. It is the opinion of other grammarians, (in which opinion we concur,) that, besides the two cases just mentioned, all verbs in the three past, and the two future tenses, are in the subjunctive mood, when they denote contingency or uncertainty, though they have not any change of termination ; and that, when contingency is not signified, the verb, through all these five tenses, belongs to the indicative mood, whatever conjunction may attend it. They think, that the definition and nature of the subjunctive mood, have no reference to change of termination, but that they refer merely to the manner of the being, action, or passion, signified by the verb; and that the subjunctive mood may as properly exist without a variation of the verb, as the infinitive mood, which has no terminationfs different from those of the indicative. 'The decision of this point may not, by some grammarians, be thought of much consequence.

But the rules which ascertain the propriety of varying, or not varying, the terminations of the verb, will certainly be deemed important. These rules may be well observed, without a uniformity of sentiment respecting the nature and limits


@ of the subjunctive mood. For further remarks on the subject, see pages 78–80. 84-86. 102-104. 108–111*.

9. Some conjunctions have correspondent conjunctions belonging to them, either expressed or understood : as,

1st, Though,-yet, nevertheless : as, Though he was rich, yet for our sakes he became poor.” Though powerful, he was meek.”

2d, Whether-or: as, Whether he will go or not, I cannot tell.” 3d, Either

or: as,

“ I will either send it, or bring it myself.” 4th, Neither-nor: as,

6. Neither he nor I am able to compass it.”

5th,' As-as: expressing a comparison of equality : as, “She is as amiable as her sister; and as much respected.”

6th, As--so : expressing a comparison of equality: as, As the stars, so shall thy seed be.”

7th, As-s0: expressing a comparison of quality: as, As the one dieth, so dieth the other.” “ As he reads, they read.”

8th, So-as: with a verb expressing a comparison of quality: as, “ To see thy glory, so as I have seen thee in the sanctuary.”

gth, So-as: with a negative and an adjective expressing * We have stated; for the student's information, the different opinions of gram marians, respecting the English Subjunctive Mood: First, that which supposes there is no such mood in our language; Secondly, that which extends it no farther than the variations of the verb extend; Thirdly, that which we have adopted, and explained at large; and which, in general, corresponds with the

views of the most approved writers on English Grammar. We may add a 1. Fourth opinion ; which appears to possess, at least, much plausibility. This

opinion admits the arrangement we have given, with one variation, namely, that of assigning to the first tense of the subjunctive, two forms: 1st, that which simply denotes contingency: as, “If he desires it, I will perform the operation ;” that is, “ If he now desires it:" 2dly, that which denotes both contingency, and futurity: as, “If he desire it, I will perform the operation ;” that is, “ If he should hereafter desire it.” This lasi theory of the subjunctive mood, claims the merit of rendering the whole system of the moods consistent and

tegular ; of being more conformable than any other, to the definition of the un subjunctwe; and of not referring to the indicative mood forms of expression, á which ill accord with its simplicity and natarc. Perhaps this theory will bear a

strict examination,


a comparison of quantity: as, “ Pompey was not so great a general as Cæsar, nor so great a man.”

10th, So-that: expressing a consequence: as, “ He was so fatigued, that he could scarcely move."

The conjunctions or and nor may often be used, with Dearly equal propriety. "The king, whose character was not sufficiently vigorous, nor decisive, assented to the ineasure.” In this sentence, or would perhaps have been better: but, in general, nor seems to repeat the negation in the former part of the sentence, and therefore gives more emphasis to the expression.

10. Conjunctions are often improperly used, both singly and in pairs. The following are examples of this impropriety. “ The relations are so uncertain, as that they require a great deal of examination :" it should be, that they require," &c. “There was no man so sanguine, who did not apprehend some ill consequences :" it ought to be, So sanguine as not to apprehend,” &c.; or, no man, how sanguine soever, who did not,” &c. “To trust in him is no more but to acknowledge his power." “ This is no other but the gate of paradise.” In both these instances, but should be than. “We should sufficiently weigh the objects of our hope; whether they are such as we may reasonably expect from them what they propose;" &c. It ought to be, that we may reasonably," &c. « The duke had not behaved with that loyalty as he ought to have done;" with which he ought.” “In the order as they lie in his preface:" it should be, "in order as they lie;" or, " in the order in which they lie.” “Such sharp replies that cost him his life;" as cost him," &c. “ If he were truly that scarecrow, as he is now.commonly painted;":"such a scarecrow,” &c. “I wish I could do that justice to his memory, to oblige the painters," &c.; “ do such justice as to oblige,” &c.

There is a peculiar neatness in a sentence beginning with the conjunctive form of a verb. "Were there no difference, there would be no choice.”

5. A double conjunctive, in two correspondent clauses of a sentence, is sometimes made use of: as, " Had lre done this, he had escaped ;" “ Had the limitations on the prerogative been, in his time, quite fixed and certain, his integrity had made him regard as sacred, the boundaries of the constitution.” The sentence in the cominon form would have read thus : “ If the limitations on the prerogative had been, &c. his.integrity would have made him regard,” &c.

The particle as, when it is connected with the pronoun such, has the force of a relative pronoun: as,

" Let such us presume to advise others, look well to their own conduct;" which is equivalent to, “Let them who presume,” &c. But when used by itself, this particle is to be considered as a conjunction, or perhaps as an adverb. See the Key.

Our language wants a conjunction adapted to familiar style, equivalent to notwithstanding. The words for all that, seem to be too low. « The word was in the mouth of every one, but, for all that, the subject may still be a secret."

In regard that is solemn and antiquated; because would do much better in the following sentence. " It cannot be otherwise, in regard that the French prosody differs from that of every other language.”

The word except is far preferable to other than. “ It admitted of no effèctual cure other than amputation." Except is also to be preferred to all but. They were happy all but the stranger."

In the two following phrases, the conjunction as is improperly omitted; “Which nobody presumes, or is so sanguine , to hope.” “I must, however, be so just , to own."

The conjunction that is often properly omitted, and understood; as, “ I beg you would come to me;" “ See thou do it not;" instead of " that you would,” " that thou do." But in the following and many similar phrases, this conjunction would be much better inserted: “ Yet it is


of their virtues remain to posterity." It should be, “yet it is just that the memory," &c.



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