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• To sleep
In the following instance there is a very considerable one: “ He will often argue, that if this part of our trade were well cultivated, we should gain from one nation; and if another, from another;" that is, “ He will often argue, that if this part of our trade were well cultivated, we should gain from one nation, and if another part of our trade were well cultivated, we should gain from another nation."
The foHowing instances, though short, contain much of the ellipsis; “Wo is me;" i. e. “ wo is to me.”
66 To let blood;" i. e. “ to let out blood.” - To let down;" i. e. “ to let it fall or slide down.” 66 To walk a mile;" i. e. “ to walk through the space of a mile.” all night;" i. e. “ To sleep through all the night.” go a fishing;" “ To go a hunting ;" i. e. “ to go on a fishing voyage or business ;”. “ to go on a hunting party.” “ I dine at two o'clock;" i. e. " at two of the clock."
By sea, by land, on shore:" i. e. “By the sea, by the land, on the shore.”
10. The examples that follow are produced to show the impropriety of ellipsis in some particular cases.
« The land was always possessed, during pleasure, by those intrusted with the command;" it should be, “those persons intrusted;" or, “ those who were intrusted.” “ If he had read further, he would have found several of his objections might have been spared:” that is, “ he would have found that several of his objections," &c. “ There is nothing men are more deficient in, than knowing their own characters." It ought to be, “ nothing in which men;" and, “ than in knowing.” “I scarcely know any part of natural philosophy would yield more variety and use;" it should be, “ which would yield,” &c. “ In the temper of mind he was then;" i. e. “ in which he then was.”
« The little satisfaction and consistency, to be found in most of the systems
of divinity I have met with, made me betake myself to the si sole reading of the Scriptures :" it ought to be," which are
to be found,” and, “ which I have met with.” “ He desired they might go to the altar together, and jointly return their thanks to whom only they were due;" i. e. "to him to whom,” &c.
RULE XXI. All the parts of a sentence should correspond to each other: a regular and dependent construction, throughout, should be carefully preserved. The following sentence is therefore inaccurate : “ He was more beloved, but not so much admired, as Cinthio.” It should be,“ He was more beloved than Cinthio, but not so much admired.”
Exercises, p. 121. Key, p. 90. The first example under this rule, presents a most irre. gular construction, namely, “He was more beloved as Cinthio.” The words more and so much, are very improperly stated as baving the same regimen. In correcting such sentences, it is not necessary to supply the latter ellipsis of the corrected sentence, by saying, “but not so much admired as Cinthio was;" because the ellipsis cannot lead to any discordant or improper construction, and the supply would often be harsh or inelegant. See Rule XX. and the Notes under it.
As the 22d Rule comprehends all the preceding rules, it may, at the first view, appear to be too general to be useful. But by ranging under it a number of sentences peculiarly constructed, we shall perceive, that it is calculated to ascertain the true grammatical construction of many modes of expression, which none of the particular rules can sufficiently explain,
“ This dedication may serve for almost any book, that has, is, or shall be published.” It ought to be, “that has been, or shall be published." “ He was guided by interests always different, sometimes contrary to, those of the community;" “ different from ;" or, “always different from those of the community, and sometimes contrary to them.” “Will it be urged that these books are as old, or even older than tradition?” The words, “as old,” and " older,” cannot have a common regimen; it should be
"as old as tradition, or even older.", " It requires' few talents to which most men are not born, or at least may not acquire;" “or which, at least, they may not acquire.” “The court of chancery frequently mitigates and breaks the teeth of the common law.” In this construction, the fiæst verb is said, “ to mitigate the teeth of the common law," which is an evident solecism. Mitigates the common law, and breaks the teeth of it,” would have been grammatical.
They presently grow into good humour, and good language towards the crown;" grow into good lan.. guage,?' is very improper. 66. There is never wanting a set of evil instruments, who either out of mad zeal, private hatred, or filthy lucre, are always ready,” &c. We say properly, • A man acts out of mad zeal,” or, “out of private hatred;" but we cannot say, if we would speak English, “he acts out of filthy lucre.” “. To double her kindness and caresses of me;" the word “s kindness” requires to be followed by either to or for, and cannot be construed with the preposition of « Never was man so teased, or suf. fered half the uneasiness, as I have done this evening :" the first and third clauses, viz. 6. Never was man so teased, as I have done this evening,” cannot be joined without an impropriety; and, to connect the second and third, the word that must be substituted for as; " Or suffered half the uneasiness that I have done;" or else, " half so much uneasiness as I have suffered.”
The first part of the following sentence abounds with adverbs, and those such as are hardly consistent with one another: “ How much soever the reformation of this degenerate age is almost utterly to be despaired of, we may yet have a more comfortable prospect of future times.” The sentence would be more correct in the following form:
Though the reformation of this degenerate age is nearly to be despaired of," &c. Oh! shut not up my
soul with the sinners, nor life with the blood-thirsty ; in whose hands is wickedness, and their right hand is full of gifts." As the passage, intro
duced by the copulative conjunction and, was not intended as a continuation of the principal and independent part of the sentence, but of the dependent part, the relative whose should have been used instead of the possessive their; viz. " and whose right-hand is full of gifts."
Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God hath prepared for them that love him.” There seems to be an impropriety in this sentence, in which the same noun serves in a double capacity, performing at the same time the offices both of the nominative and objective cases. « Neither hath it entered into the heart of man, to conceive the things,” &c. would have been regular.
“We have the power of retaining, altering, and compounding, those images which we have once received, into all the varieties of picture and vision.”
It is very proper to say, “altering and compounding those images which we have once received, into all the varieties of picture and vision;" but we can with no propriety say, “retaining them into all the varieties ;” and yet, according to the manner in which the words are ranged, this construction is unavoidable: for “ retaining, altering, and compounding," are participles, each of which equally refers to, and governs the subsequent noun, those images; and that noun again is necessarily connected with the following preposition, into. The construction might easily have been rectified, by disjoining the participle retaining from the other two participles, in this way: “We have the power of retaining those images which we have once received, and of altering and compounding them into all the varieties of picture and vision;" or, perhaps, better thus: “ We have the power of retaining, altering, and compounding those images which we have once received, and of forming them into all the varieties of picture and on."
INTERJECTION. For the syntax of the Interjection See Rule v. Note 11. page 152, and Note 9 of Rule xxi.
DIRECTIONS FOR PARSING. As we have finished the explanation of the different parts of speech, and the rules for forming them into sentences, it is now proper to give some examples of the manner in which the learners should be exercised, in order to prove their knowledge, and to render it familiar to them. This is called parsing. The nature of the subject, as well as the adaptation of it to learners, uires that it should be divided into two parts; viz. parsing, as it respects etymology alone ; and parsing, as it respects both etymology and syntax *. SECTION 1. Specimens of etymological pussing.
See the Exercises, p. 15.
66 Virtue ennobles us." Virtue is a common substantive, of the neuter gender, the third person, the singular number, and in the nominative case. (Decline the noun.) Ennobles is a regular verb active, indicative mood, present tense, and the third person singular. (Repeat the present tense, the imperfect tense, and the perfect participle +:) Us is a personal pronoun, of the first person plural, and in the objective case. (Decline it.)
“Goodness will be rewarded.” Goodness is a common substantive, of the neuter gender, the third person, the singular number, and in the nominative case. (Decline it.) Will be rewarded is a regular verb, in the passive voice, the indicative mood, the first future tense, and the third person singular. (Repeat the present tense, the imperfect tense, and the perfect participle.)
« Strive to improve.”. Strive is an irregular verb, neuter, in the imperative mood, and of the second person singular. (Repeat the present tense, 8c.) To improve is a regular verb neuter, and in the infinitive inood. (Repeat the present tense, &c.)
* See the “General Directions for using the English Exercises,” prefixed to the Eighth and every subsequent edition of that book. * The learner should occasionally repeat all the moods and tenses of the verb.