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dernment and rule.) And is a copulative conjunction. Us is a personal pronoun, in the objective case. You and us are put in the same case, according to RULE XVIII. which says, &c. And is a copulative conjunction. Has gratified is a regular verb active, indicative mood, perfect tense, and third person singular, agreeing with its nominative
bounty,” understood. " Has relieved" and “has gratified," are in the same mood and tense, according to RULE Xvir, which says, &c. The is the definite article. Donor is a common substantive, of the third person, the singular number, and the objective case governed by the active verb “ has gratified,” according to Rule xi. which says, &c. See the Octavo Grammar, on gender,
“ He will not be pardoned, unless he repent.” He is a personal pronoun, of the third person, singular number, masculine gender, and in the nominative case. Will be pardoned is a regular passive verb, indicative mood, first future tense, and the third person singular, agreeing with its nominative “he,” according to RULE 1, and composed of the auxiliaries «« will be," and the perfect participle " pardoned.” Not is a negative adverb. Unless is a disjunctive conjunction. He is a personal pronoun. (Repeat the person, number, gender, and case.) Repent is a regular verb neuter, in the subjunctive mood, the present tense, the third person singular, and agrees with its nominative case “he," according to R'ULE 1. which says, &c. It is in the subjunctive mood, because it implies a future sense, and denotes uncertainty signified by the conjunction unless," agreeably to RULE XIX. and the notes.
“Good works being neglected, devotion is false.” Good works being neglected, being independent on the rest of the sentence, is the case absolute, according to the fifth note of RULE I. Devotion is a common substantive. (Repeat the number, person, and case.) Is is an irregular verb peuter. (Repeat the mood, tense, person, &c.) False is an adjective in the positive state, and belongs to its sutar
stantive « devotion" understood, agreeably to RULE VII). which says, &e.
“The emperor, Marcus Aurelius, was a wise and virtuous prince.” The is the definite article. Emperor is a common substantive, of the masculine gender, the third person, the singular number, and in the nominative case. Marcus Aurelius is a proper name or substantive, and in the nominative case, because it is put in apposition with the substantive
emperor,” agreeably to the first note of RULE X. Was is an irregular verb neuter, indicative mood, imperfect tense, and the third person singular, agreeing with its nominative
emperor.” A is the indefinite article. Wise is an adjective, and belongs to its substantive “prince." And is a copulative conjunction. Virtuous is an adjective, and belongs, &c. Prince is a common substantive, and in the nominative case, agreeably to the fourth note of RULE XI.
" To err is human." To err, is the infinitive mood, and the nominative case to the verb “is.” Is is an irregular verb neuter, indicative jnood, present tense, and the third person singular, agreeing with its nominative case “ to err," agreeably to Note 1, under RULE the first. Human is an adjective, and belongs to its substantive “ nature” understood, according to RULE VIII. which says, &c.
“To countenance persons who are guilty of bad actions, is scarcely one remove from actually committing
them." To countenance persons who are guilty of bed actions, is part of a sentence, which is the nominative case to the verb
Is is an irregular verb, neuter, &c. agreeing with the aforementioned part of a sentence, as its nominative case, agreeably to Note 1. under RULE the first. Scarcely is an adverb. One is a numeral adjective, agreeing with its substantive “ remove.” Rernove is a common substantive, of the neuter gender, the third person, the singular
number, and in the nominative case, agreeably to the fourth note of RULE XI. From is a preposition. Committing is the present participle of the regular active verb « to commit.” Them is a personal pronoun, of the third person, the plural number, and in the objective case, governed by the participle “ committing,” agreeably to. RULE XIV, which says, &c.
• Let me proceed.” This sentence, according to the statement of grammarians in general, is in the Imperative mood, of the first person, and the singular number. The sentence may, however, be analyzed in the following manner.
Let is an irregular verb active, in the imperative mood, of the second person, the plural number, and agrees with its nominative case “ you” understood: as, “ do you let.” Me is a personal pronoun, of the first person, the singular number, and in the objective case, governed by the active verb “ let," agreeably to RULE XI. which says, &c. Proceed is a regular verb neuter, in the infinitive mood, governed by the preceding verb " let,” according to RULE XII, which
“ Living expensively and luxuriously destroys health.” “ By living frugally and temperately,
health is preserved." Living expensively and luxuriously, is the nominative case to the verb“ destroys,” agreeably to Note 1, under RULE I. Living frugally and temperately, is a substantive phrase in the objective case, governed by the preposition" by," according to Note 2, under rule xiv.
The preceding specimens of parsing, if carefully studied by the learner, seem to be sufficiently explicit, to enable him to comprehend the nature of this employment; and sufficiently diversified, to qualify him, in other exercises, to point out and apply the remaining rules, both principal and subordinate.
For further specimens, on a new and improved plan, see the Octavo Grammar, 'SHIRD edition, vol. 2. pages 43 to 52.
PROSODY PROSODY consists of two parts: the former teaches the true PRONUNCIATION of words, comprising Accent, QUANTITY, EMPHASIS, PAUSE, and TONE; and the latter, the laws of VERSIFI.
Section 1. Of Accent. Accent is the laying of a peculiar stress of the voice, on a certain letter or syllable in a word, that it may be better heard than the rest, or distinguished from them : as, in the word presúme, the stress of the voice must be on the letter u, and second syllable, sume, which take the accent.
As words may be formed of a different number of sylLables, from one to eight or nine, it was necessary to have some peculiar mark to distinguish words from mere syl lables ; otherwise speech would be only a continued succession of syllables, without conveying ideas: for, as words are the marks of ideas, any confusion in the marks, must cause the same in the ideas for which they stand. It was therefore necessary, that the mind should at once perceive what number of syllables belongs to each word, in utterance. This might be done by a perceptible pause at the end of each word in speaking, as we form a certain distance between them in writing and printing: But this would make discourse extremely tedious; and though it
might render words distinct, would make the meaning of sentences confused. Syllables might also be sufficiently distinguished by a certain elevation or depression of voice upon one syllable of each word, which was the practice of some nations. But the English tongue has, for this purpose, adopted a mark of the easiest and simplest kind, which is called accent, and which effectually answers the end.
Every word in our language, of more than one syllable, has one of them distinguished from the rest in this manner; and some writers assert, that every monosyllable of two or more letters, has one of its letters thus distinguished.
Accent is either principal or secondary. The principal accent is that which necessarily distinguishes one syllable in a word from the rest. The secondary accent is that stress which we may occasionally place upon another syllable, besides that which has the principal accent; in order to pronounce every part of the word more distinctly, forcibly, and harmoniously: thus, “Complaisant, caravan," and “violin," have frequently an accent on the first as well as on the last syllable, though a somewhat less forcible one.
The same may be observed of “Repartee, referee, privateer, domineer,” &c. But it must be observed, that though an accent is allowed on the first syllable of these words, it is by no means necessary; they may all be pronounced with one accent, and that on the last syllable, without the least deviation from propriety.
As emphasis evidently points out the most significant word in a sentence; so, where other reasons do not forbid, the accent always dwells with greatest force on that part of the word which, from its importance, the hearer has always the greatest occasion to observe: and this is necessarily the root or body of the word. But as harmony of termination frequently attracts the accent from the root to the branches of words, so the first and most natural law of accentuation seems to operate less in fixing the stress than any other. Our own Saxon terminations, indeed,