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TROCHAIC verse is of several kinds.
1. The shortest Trochaic verse in our language, consists of one Trochee and a long syllable.
Sink to peace. This measure is defective in dignity, and can seldom be used on serious occasions.
2. The second English form of the Trochaic consists of two feet; and is likewise so brief, that it is rarely used for any very serious purpose.
on the möuntain
By a fountain. It sometimes contains two feet or trochees, with an addi. tional long syllable: as,
In the dāys of old
3. The third species consists of three trochees: as,
Whēn our hēarts are mourning: or of three trochees, with an additional long syllable: as,
Rēstless mõrtăls toil for nought;
4. The fourth Trochaic species consists of four trochees: as,
Round ŭs roars thě tēmpěst lõuděr.
This form may take an additional long syllable, as follows:
idle after dinner in his chāir,
Sat a farmer, ruddy, fat, and fair. But this measure is very uncommon.
5. The fifth Trochaic species is likewise uncommon. It is composed of five trochees.
All thăt wālk on foot or ride în chāriðts,
All that dwell in palaces or garrets. 6. The sixth form of the English Trochaic consists of six trochees: as,
Onă mountăin, strētch'd běneāth ă hòary willow,
Lay a shepherd swain, and view'd the rolling billow. This seems to be the longest Trochaic line that our lan
In all these Trochaic measures, the accent is to be placed on the odd syllables.
The DACTYLIC measure being very uncommon, we shall give only one example of one species of it:
From the low plēasůres of this fållen nātère,
Rise we to higher, &c. ANAPÆSTIC verses are divided into several species. 1. Theshortest anapestic verse must be a single anapæst: as,
Būt în vāin,
They complain. This measure is, however, ambiguous; for, by laying the stress of the voice on the first and third syllables, we might make a trochaic. And therefore the first and simplest form of our genuine Anapæstic verse, is made up of twe Anapæsts: as,
Bắt his cõurageogắn fail,
For no arts could avail.
Then his courage "găn fail him,
For no arts could avail him
To your deepest recesses I fly;
I would vanish from every eye.
This is a very pleasing measure, and much used, both in solemn and cheerful subjects.
The third kind of the English Anapæstic, consists of four Anapæsts.
Máy I govern mỹ pässions with absölüte sway;
wiser and better as life wears away. This measure will admit of a short syllable at the end : as Ön the wārm cheek of youth, smiles ånd roses are blēnding.
The preceding are the different kinds of the principal feet, in their more simple forms. They are capable of numerous variations, by the intermixture of those feet with each other; and by the admission of the secondary feet.
We have observed, that English verse is composed of feet formed by accent; and that when the accent falls on vowels, the feet are equivalent to those formed by quantity. That the student may clearly perceive this difference, we shall produce a specimen of each kind,
O'ěr hēaps of rūịns stālk'd thě stātely bind. Here we see the accent is upon the vowel in each second syllable. In the following line, we shall find the same lambic movement, but formed by accent on consonants, except the last syllable.
Then rústling, crackling, crashing thúnder down. Here the time of the short accented syllables, is compensated by a short pause, at the end of each word to which they belong.
We now proceed to show the manner in which poetry is varied and improved, by the admission of secondary feet into its composition.
Múrmuring, and with him fled the shades of night. The first foot here is a Dactył; the rest are lambics.
O'er many : frozen, mány a fiery Alp. This line contains three Amphibrachs mixed with Iambics, Innūměrăble before th' Almighty's throne. Here, in the second foot, we find a Tribrach.
See the bold youth stráin úp the thréatning steep. In this line, the first foot is a Trochee; the second a genuine Spondee by quantity; the third a Spondee by accent.
In the following line, the first foot is a Pyrrhic, the second a Spondee.
Thăt on weak wings from far pursues your flight, From the preceding view of English versification, we may see what a copious stock of materials it possesses. For we are not only allowed the use of all the ancient poetic feet, in our heroic measure, but we have, as before observed, duplicates of each, agreeing in movement, though differing in measure *, and which make different impressions on the ear; an opulence peculiar to our language, and which is the source of a boundless variety.
Of Poetical Pauses. There are two sorts of pauses, one for sense, and one for melody, perfectly distinct from each other. The former may be called sentential, the latter, harmonic
The sentential pauses are those which are known to us by the name of stops, and which have names given them; as the comma, semicolon, colon, and period.
The harmonic pauses may be subdivided into the final pause, and the cæsural pause. These sometimes coincide with the sentential pause, sometimes have an independent state, that is, exist where there is no stop in the sense. The final
pause takes place at the end of the line, closes the verse, and marks the measure: the cæsural divides it into equal or unequal parts.
Movement and measure are thus distinguished. Movement expresses the progressive order of sounds, whether from strong to weak, from long 'o short, or vice versa, Measure signifies the proportion of time, both in sounds and pauses.
The final pause preserves the melody, without interfering with the sense. For the pause itself perfectly marks the bound of the metre; and being made only by a suspension of the voice, not by any change of note, it can never affect the sense.
This is not the only advantage gained to numbers, by this final pause or stop of suspension. It also prevents that monotony, that sameness of note at the end of lines, which, however pleasing to a rude, is disgusting to a delicate ear.
For as this final pause has no peculiar note of its own, but always takes that which belongs to the preceding word, it changes continually with the matter, and is as various as the sense.
It is the final pause which alone, on many occasions, marks the difference between prose and verse'; which will be evident from the following arrangement of a few poetical lines.
“ Of man's first disobedience, and the fruit of that forbidden tree, whose mortal taste brought death into the world, and all our wo, with loss of Eden, till one greater man restore us, and regain the blissful seat, sing heavenly muse!"
A stranger to the poem would not easily discover that this was verse; but would take it for poetical prose. By properly adjusting the final pause, we shall restore the pas. sage to its true state of verse.
Of man's first disobedience, and the fruit
Sing, heavenly muse! These examples show the necessity of reading blank verse, in such a manner, as to make every line sensible to the ear: for, what is the use of melody, or for what end has the poet composed in verse, if, in reading his lines, we suppress his numbers, by omitting the final pause; and degrade them, by our pronunciation, into mere prose?,