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The two words own and self, are used in conjunction with pronouns. Own is added to possessives, both singular and plural: as, “ My own hand, our own house." It is emphatical, and implies a silent contrariety or opposition: as, " I live in my own house,” that is, “not in a hired house.” Self is added to possessives: as, myself, yourselves; and sometimes to personal pronouns: as, himself, itself, themselves. It then, like own, expresses emphasis and opposition: as, “ I did this myself,” that is, “ not another;" or it forms a reciprocal pronoun: as, “ We hurt ourselves by vain rage."
Himself, themselves, are now used in the nominative case, instead of hisself, theirselves : as, “ He came himself;" “ He himself shall do this;" « They performed it themselves."
2. The distributive are those which denote the persons or things that make up a number, as taken separately and singly. They are each, every, either: as, “ Each of his brothers is in a favourable situation;" “ Every man must account for himself;" " I have not seen, either of them.”
Each relates to two or more persons or things, and signifies either of the two, or every one of any number taken separately.
Every relates to several persons or things, and signifies each one of them all taken separately. This pronoun was formerly used apart from its noun, but it is now constantly annexed to it, except in legal proceedings: as, in the phrase “ all and every of them."
Either relates to two persons or things taken separately, and signifies the one or the other. To say, “either of the three,” is therefore improper.
Neither imports “not either;" that is, not one nor the other; as, " Neither of my friends was there.”
3: The demonstrative are those which precisely point out the subjects to which they relate: this
and that, these and those, are of this class: as, « This is true charity ; that is only its image."
This refers to the nearest person or thing, and that to the most distant: as, “ This man is more intelligent than that." This indicates the latter or last mentioned ; that, the former or first mentioned : as, “ Both wealth and poverty are temptations; that, tends to excite pride, this, discontent.”
Perhaps the words former and latter may be properly ranked amongst the demonstrative pronouns, especially in many of their applications. The following sentence may serve as an example: “ It was happy for the state, that Fabius continued in the command with Minucius: the former's phlegm was a check upon the latter's vivacity.”
4. The indefinite are those which express their subjects in an indefinite or general manner. The following are of this kind: some, other, any, one, all, such, &c.
Of these pronouns, only the words one and other are varied. One has a possessive case, which it forms in the same manner as substantives: as, one, one's. This word has a general signification, meaning people at large; and sometimes also a peculiar reference to the person who is speaking: as, “ One ought to pity the distresses of mankind.” “ One is apt to love one's self.” This word is often used, by good writers, in the plural number: as, “ The great ones of the world;" « The boy wounded the old bird, and stole the young ones ;" “ My wife and the little ones are in good health.” Other is declined in the following manner: Singular.
The plural others is only used when apart from the noun to which it refers, whether expressed or understood: as, 5 “ When you have perused these papers, I will send you the others.”. “He pleases some, but he disgusts others." When this pronoun is joined to nouns, either singular or " plural, it has no variation: as, “ the other man,” "the" : other men.”
The following phrases may serve to exemplify the inde-“finite pronouns. “ Some of you are wise and good ;” “A** few of them were idle, the others industrious;”. “ Neither is there any that is unexceptionable;" “ One ought to know one's own mind;" “ They were all present;" :« Such is the state of man, that he is never at rest;" “ Some are happy, 1 while others are miserable."
The word another is composed of the indefinite article prefixed to the word other."
None is used in both numbers: as, “ None is so deaf as he that will not hear;" “ None of those are equal to these." It seems originally to have signified, according to its derivation, not one, and therefore to have had no plural; but there is good authority for the use of it in the plural numher: as, “ None that go unto her return again.” Prov. ii. 19.." e Terms of peace were none vouchsaf?d.” Milton. “ None of them are varied to express the gender.” «« None of them have different endings for the numbers.” Lowth's Introduction. « None of their productions are extant." 4. BLAIR.
We have endeavoured to explain the nature of the adjective pronouns, and to distinguish and arrange them intelligibly: but it is difficult, perhaps impracticable, to define and divide them in a manner perfectly unexo ceptionable. Some of them, in particular, may seem to require a different arrangement. We presume, however, that, for every useful purpose, the present classification is suffi-'. ciently correct. All the pronouns, except the personal and relative, may indeed, in a general view of them, be considered as definitive pronouns, because they define or ascertain the extent of the common name, or general term, to which
they refer, or are joined'; hutas each class of them does this, more or less exactly, or in a manner peculiar to itself, a division adapted to this circunıstance appears to be suitable to the nature of things, and the understanding of learners.
It is the opinion of some respectable grammarians, that the words this, that, any, some, such, his, their, our, &c. are pronouns, when they are used separately from the nouns to which they relate; but that, when they are joined to those nouns, they are not to be considered as belonging to this species of words; because, in this association, they rather ascertain a substantive, than supply the place of one. They assert that, in the phrases, “give me that,” “this is John's” and “such were some of you,” the words in italics are pronouns; but that, in the following phrases, they are not pronouns; “ this book is instructive,” « some boys are ingenious," " my health is declining,” “our hearts are deceitful,” &c. Other grammarians think, that all these words are pure adjectives; and that none of them can properly be called pronouns; as the genuine pronoun stands by itself, without the aid of a noun expressed or understood. They are of opinion, that in the expressions, “ Give me that;” “ this is John's," &c. the noun is always under. stood, and inust be supplied in the mind of the reader: as, “ Give me that book ;" “ this book is John's;" « and such persons were some persons aniongst you.”
Some writers are of opinion that the pronouns should be classed into substantipe and adjective pronouns. Under the former, they include the personal and the relative; under the latter, all the others. But this division, though a neat one, does not appear to be accurate. All the relative pronouns will not range under the substantive head.. We have distributed these parts of grammar, in the mode which we think most correct and intelligible: but, for the infoțmation of students, and to direct their inquiries on the subject, we state the different opinions of several judicious grammarians. See the Octavo Grammar on these pointe.
CHAPTER VI. sz.; ***
, 'n Pisa
Of VERBS, .. Section 1. Of the nature of Verbs in general. .
A verb is a word which signifies to be, to do, or to SUFFER; as, “ I am, I rule, I am ruled.”
Verbs are of three kinds; ACTIVE, PASSIVE, and NEUTER. They'are also divided into REGULAR, IRREGULAR, and DEFECTIVE.
•Ą Verb Active expresses an action, and necessarily implies an agent, and an object acted upon: as, to love; “I love Penelope.” . 6. Ą Verb Passive expresses a passion or a suffer
ing, or the receiving of an action; and necessa"rily implies an object acted upon, and an agent by which it is acted upon: as, to be loved ; “ Penelope is loved by me." L. A Verb Neuter expresses neither action nor passion, but being, or a state of being: as, “I am, I sleep, I sit *."
The verb active is also called transitive, because the action passes over to the object, or has an effect upon soine
* Verbs have been distinguished by some writers, into the following kinds.
Ist. Active-transitive, or those which denote an action that passed from the agent to some object: as, Cæsar conquered Pompey.
2d.' Active-intransitive, or those which express that kind of action, which has ao effect upon any thing beyond the agent himself: as, Cæsar walked. .
3d. Passive, or those which express, not action, but passion, whether pleasing or painful: as, Portia was loved ; Pompey was conquered.
4th. Neuter, or those which express an attribute that consists neither in action nor passion: as, Cæsar stood.
This appears to be an orderly arrangemente, But if the class of active-intransitive verbs were admitted, it would rather perplex than assist the learner : for the difference between verbs active and neuter, as transitive and intransitive, is easy and obvious; but the difference between verbis absolutely neuter and intransitively active, is not always clear. It is, indeed, often very difficult to be ascertained.