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persons beginning the study of grammar, to commit to memory all the tenses of the verbs. If the simple tenses, namely, the present and the imperfect, together with the 2/2/2/2/2/2/2ņēmētiņ2âÒâ§2§2§,§22222222?Â2Ò2§Â2Ò2ÂòÂ2Ò2§22222222

to memory, and the rest carefully perused and explained, the business will not be tedious to the scholars, and their progress will be rendered more obvious and pleasing. The general view of the subject, thus acquired and impressed, may afterwards be extended with ease and advantage.

It appears to be proper, for the information of the learners, to make a few observations in this place, on some of the tenses, &c. The first is, that, in the potential mood, some grammarians confound the present with the imperfect tense; and the perfect with the pluperfect. But that they are really distinct, and have an appropriate reference to time, correspondent to the definitions of those tenses, will appear from a few examples: “I wished him to stay, but he would not;" “ I could not accomplish the business in time;" “ It was my direction that he should submit;" “ He was ill, but I thought he might live:” “ I may have misunderstood him;" “He cannot have deceived me:” “He might have finished the work sooner, but he could not have done it better.”—It must, however, be admitted, that, on some occasions, the auxiliaries might, could, would, and should, refer also to present and to future time. See page 83.

The next remark is, that the auxiliary will, in the first person singular and plural of the second future tense; and the auxiliary shall, in the second and third persons of that tense, in the indicative mood, appear to be incorrectly applied. The impropriety of such associations may be inferred from a few examples : “ I will have had previous notice, whenever the event happens ;” “ Thou shalt have served thy apprenticeship before the end of the year;" “He shall have completed his business when the messenger arrives.” “ I shall have had; thou wilt have served; he will have completed,” &c. would have been correct and applicable. The peculiar import of these auxiliaries, as explained in page 98, under section 7, seems to account for their impropriety in the applications just mentioned.

Some writers on Grammar object to the propriety of admitting the second future, in both the indicative and subjunctive moods: but that this tense is applicable to both moods, will be manifest from the following examples. “ John will have earned his wages the next new-year's day," is a simple declaration, and therefore in the indicative mood: ** If he shall have finished his work when the bell rings, he will be entitled to the reward,” is conditional and contingent, and is therefore in the subjunctive mood.

We shall conclude these detached observations, with one semark which may be useful to the young scholar, namely, that as the indicative mood is converted into the subjunctive, by the expression of a condition, motive, wish, supposition, &c. being superadded to it; so the potential mood may, in like manner, be turned into the subjunctive; as will be seen in the following examples: “If I could deceive him, I should abhor it;" “ Though he should increase in wealth, he would not be charitable;" « Even in prosperity he would gain no esteem, unless he should conduct himself better.”

The auxiliary and neuter verb To be, is conjugated as follows:

TO BE.
Indicative Mood.

PRESENT TENSE.
SINGULAR

PLURAL. 1. I am,

1. We are. 12. Thou art.

2. Ye or you are. 3. He, she, or it is. 3. They are.

IMPERFECT TENSE.

PLURAL. . 1. I was,

1. We were. 2. Thou wast.

2. Ye or you were. 3. He was.

.3. They were.

SINGULAR.

PERFECT TENSB.
SINGULAR.

PLURAL. 1. I have been.

1. We have been. 2. Thou hast been. 2. Ye or you have been. 3. He hath or has been. 3. They have been.

PLUPERFECT TENSÉ.
SINGULAR.

PLURAL. 1. I had been.

1. We had been. 2. Thou hadst been. 2. Ye or you had been. 3. He had been.

3. They had been.

FIRST FUTURE TENSE.
SINGULAR.

PLURAL. 1. I shall or will be. 1. We shall or will be. 2. Thou shalt or wilt be. 2. Ye or you shall or will be, 3. He shall or will be. 3. They shall or will be.

: SECOND FUTURE TENSE. SINGULAR.

PLURAL. 1. I shall have been. 1. We shall have been. 2. Thou wilt have been. 2. Ye or you will have been. 3. He will have been. 3. They will have been.

SINGULAR.

Imperative Mood.

PLURAL. 1. Let me be.

1. Let us be. 2. Be thou or do thou be. 2. Be ye or you, or do ye be. 3. Let him be.

3. Let them be.

Potential Mood.

PRESENT TENSE.
SINGULAR.

PLURAL. 1. I may or can be. 1. We may or can be. 2. Thou mayst or canst be. 2. Ye or you may or can be. 3, He may or can be. 3. They may or can be. .

IMPERFECT TENSE.
SINGULAR.

PLURAL. 1. I might, could, would, or 1. We might, could, would, should be.

or should be. 2. Thou mightst, couldst, 2. Ye or you might, could,

wouldst, or shouldst be. would, or should be. 3. He might, could, would, 3. They might, could, would, or should be.

or should be.

PERFECT TENSE.
SINGULAR.

PLURAL. 1. I may or can have been. 1. We may or can have been. 2. Thou mayst or canst have 2. Ye or you may or can have been.

been. 3. He mayor can have been, 3. They mayor can have been.

PLUPERFECT TENSE.

SINGULAR.

PLURAL. d. I might, could, would, or 1. We might, could, would, should have been

or should have been. 2. Thou mightst, couldst, 2. Ye or you might, could,

wouldst, or shouldst have would, or should have · been...

been. 3. He might, could, would, 3. They might, could, would,

ar should have been or should have been.

Subjunctive Mood.

. PRESENT TENSE, SINCULAR

PLURAL. 1. If I be.

1. If we be. 2. If thou be.

2. If ye or you be. 3. If he be..

3. If they be.

IMPERFECT TENSE.

PLURAL,

SINGULAR. 1. If I were. 2. If thou wert. 3. If he were:

1. If we were.
2. If ye or you were..
3. If they were.

The remaining tenses of this mood are, in general, similar to the correspondent tenses of the Indicative mood. See pages 90, 102, 103, and the notes under the nineteenth rule of syntax.

Infinitive Mood. PRESENT TENSE. To be. PERFECT. To have been,

Participles. PRESENT. Being. Perfect. Been. COMPOUND PERFECT. Having been. Section 7. The Auxiliary Verbs conjugated in their

simple form; with observations on their peculiar nature and force.

The learner will perceive that the preceding auxiliary verbs, to have and to be, could not be conjugated through all the moods and tenses, without the help of other auxiliary verbs; namely, may, can, will, shall, and their variations,

That auxiliary verbs, in their simple state, and unassisted by others, are of a very limited extent; and that they are chiefly useful, in the aid which they afford in conjugating the principal verbs; will clearly appear to the scholar, by a distinct conjugation of each of them, uncombined with any other. They are exhibited for his inspection; not to be committed to memory.

TO HAVE.

PRESENT TENSE. Sing. 1. I have. 2. Thou hast. 3. He hath or has. Plur. 1, We have. 2. Ye or you have. 3. They have.

IMPERFECT TENSE. Sing. 1. I had. 2. Thou hadst. 3. He had.. Plur. 1. We had, 2. Ye or you had. 3. They had. PERFECT. I have had &c. PLUPERFECT, I had had &c.

PARTICIPLES.
PRESENT. Having. FERFECT. Had,

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