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2. Thou art. 3. He is
2. Ye or you are. 3. They are,

Sing. 1. I am.
Plur. 1. We are.

Sing, 1. I was. 2. Thou wast. 3. He was.
Plur, 1. We were. 2. Ye or you were. 3. They were.



PRESENT TENSE. Sing. 1, I shall*. 2. Thou shalt. 3. He shall. Plur, 1. We shall. 2. Ye or you shall. 3. They shall.


IMPERFECT TENSE. Sing. 1. I should. 2. Thou shouldst. 3. He should. Plur. 1. We should. 2. Year you should. 3. They should,


Sing. 1. I will. 2. Thou wilt. 3. He will.
Plur. 1. We will. 2. Ye or you will. 3. They will.

Sing. 1. I would. 2. Thou wouldst. 3. He would.
Plur. 1. We would. 2. Ye or you would.3. They would.


PRESENT TENSE. Sing. 1. I may. 2. Thou mayst. 3. He may. Plur. 1. We may. 2. Yeor you may. 3. They may.

IMPERFECT TENSE. Sing. I, I might 2. Thou mightst. 3. He might. Plur. 1. We might. 2. Yeoryou might. 3. They might:

* Shall is here properly used in the present tense, having the same analogy to should that can has to could, may to might, and will to would.


Sing. 1. I can. 2. Thou canst. 3. He can.
Plur. 1. We can. 2. Ye or you can. 3. They can.

Sing. 1. I could. 2. Thou couldst. 3. He could.
Plur. 1. We could. 2. Yeor you could. 3. They could.


Sing. 1. I do. 2. Thou dost. 3. He doth or does.
Plur. 1. We do. 2. Ye or you do. 3. They do.

Sing. 1. I did. 2. Thou didst. 3. He did.
Plur. 1. We did. 2. Ye or you did. 3. They did.

PARTICIPLES. PRESENT. Doing. PERFEct. Done. The verbs have, be, will, and do, when they are unconnected with a principal verb, expressed or understood, are not auxiliaries, but principal verbs: as, “ We have enough ;" * I am grateful;" “ He wills it to be so ;") “ They do as they please.” In this view, they also have their auxiliaries: as, “ I shall have enough;" “ I will be grateful,” &c.

The peculiar force of the several auxiliaries will appear from the following account of them.'

Do and did mark the action itself, or the time of it, with greater energy and positiveness: as, “I do speak truth ;" “ I did respect him;" “ Here am I, for thou didst call me.” They are of great use in negative sentences: as, “I do not fear;" “ I did not write.” They are almost universally employed in asking questions: as, Does he learn?” Did he not write?” They sometimes also supply the place of another verb, and make the repetition of it, in the same or a subsequent sentence, unnecessary: as, “ You attend not to your studies as he does ;” (i. e. as he attends, &c.) “I shall come if I can; but if I do not, please to excuse me;" (i. e. if I come not.)

Let not only expresses permission, but entreating, exhorting, commanding: as, “ Let us know the truth;" “ Let me die the death of the righteous;" Let not thy heart be too much elated with success;" “Let thy inclination submit to thy duty."

May and might express the possibility or liberty of doing a thing; can and could, the power: as, “ It may rain;" I may write or read;" “ He might have improved more than he has ;" “ He can write much better than he could last year.”

Must is sometimes called in for a helper, and denotes necessity: as, “ We must speak the truth, whenever we do speak, and we must not prevaricate.”

Will, in the first person singular and plural, intimates resolution and promising; in the second and third person, only foretels: as, “ I will reward the good, and will punish the wicked;" “ We will remember benefits, and be grateful;" “Thou wilt, or he will, repent of that folly;" “ You or they will have a pleasant walk.”

Shall, on the contrary, in the first person, simply foretels ; in the second and third persons, promises, commands, or threatens: as, “ I shall go abroad;" “ We shall dine at home;" “Thou shalt, or you shall, inherit the land :" “ Ye shall do justice, and love mercy;" “ They shall account for their misconduct.” The following passage is not translated according to the distinct and proper meanings of the words shall and will : Surely goodness and mercy shall follow me all the days of my life; and I will dwell in the house of the Lord for ever;" it ought to be, Will follow me,” and “ I shall dwell.”—The foreigner who, as it is said, fell into the Thames, and cried out; “I will be drowned, no body shall help me;" made a sad misapplication of these auxiliaries.

These observations respecting the import of the verbs will and shall, must be understood of explicative sentences; for when the sentence is interrogative, just the reverse, for the most part, takes place; thus, “ I shall go; you will go;" express event only: but, “ will you go?” însports

intention; and, shall I go?” refers to the will of another. But, “He shall go,” and shall he go?" both imply will; expressing or referring to a command.

When the verb is put in the subjunctive mood, the meaning of these auxiliaries likewise undergoes some alteration; as the learners will readily perceive by a few examples: “ He shall proceed,” “ If he shall proceed;" " You shall consent," “ If you shall consent." These auxiliaries are sometimes interchanged, in the indicative and subjunctive moods, to convey the same meaning of the auxiliary: as, “ He will not return,” “ If he shall not return;" “ He shall not return,” “ If he will not return."

Would, primarily denotes inclination of will; and should, obligation : but they both vary their import, and are often used to express simple event.

Section $. The Conjugation of regular Verbs.

ACTIVE. Verbs Active are called Regular, when they form their imperfect tense of the indicative mood, and their perfect participle, by adding to the verb, ed, or d only when the verb ends in e: as, Present

Imperfect. Perf. Particip.
I favour. I favoured. Favoured.
I love.

I loved. : Loved. À Regular Active Verb is conjugated in the following manner.

Indicative Mood.

PLURAL. 1.I love *.

1. We love, 2. Thou lovest.

2. Ye or you love. 3. He, she,orit,loveth or loves. 3. They love.


* In the present and imperfect tenses, we use a different form of the verb, when we mean to express energy and positiveness ; as, “ I do love ; thou duse lovc; he does love; I did love; thou didst love ; he did love."


1. I loved. 2. Thou lovedst. 3. He loved.


1. We loved.
2. Ye or you loved.
3. They loved.


PLURAL. 1. I have loved.

1. We have loved. 2. Thou hast loved. 2. Ye or you have loved. 3. He hath or has loved. 3. They have loved.


SINGULAR. 1. I had loved. 2. Thou hadst loved. 3. He had loved.

1. We had loved.
2. Ye or you had loved.
3. They had loved.


PLURAL. 1. I shall or will love. 1. We shall or will love. 2. Thou shalt or wilt love. 2. Ye or you shall or will love. * 3. He shall or will love. 3. They shall or will love.


PLURAL. 1. I shall have loved. 1. We shall have loved. 2. Thou wilt have loved. 2. Ye or you will have loved. 3. He will have loved. 3. They will have loved.

Those tenses are called simple tenses, which are formed of the principal, without an auxiliary verb: as, “ I love, I loved.” The compound tenses are such as cannot be formed without an auxiliary verb: as, I have loved ; I had loved; I shall or will love; I may love; I may be loved; I may have been loved;" &c. These compounds are, however, to be considered as only different forms of the same verb.

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