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WASHINGTON:
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE

1 867.

IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES, March 2, 1867. Resolved, That there be printed for the use of the Senato twenty thousand additional copies of the Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture for the year 1866, and the accompanying documents; and three thousand additional copies of the same for the use of the Department of Agriculture.

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, February 28, 1867. On motion of Mr. LaFlin, from the Committee on Printing, Resolved, That there be printed of the Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture for the year 1866 one hundred and sixty-five thousand extra copies, viz: one hundred and forty-five thousand copies for the members of this House, and twenty thousand for the Commissioner of Agriculture.

(Printed on the fast Bullock Perfecting Press.)

CONTENTS.

Report of the Commissioner of Agriculture, Hon. Isaac Newton.....

Report of the Superintendent of the Experimental Garden, William Saunders

Report of the Entomologist, Townend Glover

Report of the Chemist, Thomas Antisell, M. D.

Report of the Statistician, J. R. Dodge

Remarks on pruning and training the grape-vine, with quotations and illustrations

from various authors, by William Saunders...

Grape-growing at the west, by R. O. Thompson...

Wine-making aud vine culture in the middle States, by William C. Lodge

Botany and agriculture of the Rocky Mountain basins, by R. O. Thompson..

Popular varieties of hardy fruit, by F. R. Elliott...

Fruit regions of the northern United States and their local climates, by James S. Lip-

pincott

Cotton culture in 1866, by N. B. Cloud, M. D..

Cotton-planting, by Joseph B. Lyman.

Aids to cattle-feeding, by L. S. Abbott..

Indian corn culture, by J. F. Wolfinger.

California products......

Improved farm implements, by S. Edwards Todd...

The origin of the domestic turkey, by Spencer F. Baird..

The “Cream-pot" stock, by William H. Slingerland ....

The Jaques “Cream-pot" stock, by J. R. Dodge...

Improvement of native cattle, by Lewis F. Allen...

American short-horns...

The stallion “French Napoleon”

The horse, from practical experience in the army, by Colonel Samuel Ringwalt....

Improved Kentucky sheep, by Robert W. Scott....

The ram “Golden Fleece"

Why and where mutton sheep are profitable, by J. R. Dodge

Infantado and Paular sheep.....

The ram “Ontario".

Training animals for work, by W. H. Gardner....

English and American dairying, their points of difference and comparative merits, by

X. A. Willard ....

The hog and its products, by Charles Cist....

Pisciculture, with reference to American waters, by Theodore Gill, M. D.........

Marine plants and their uses, with a brief account of the curing of Irish moss, by G.

Hubert Bates.......

Female life in the open air, by Mrs. Lavinia K. Davis..

Education of farmers' daughters, by Miss L. C. Dodge......

Cultivation of the cinchona in the United States, by Thomas Antisell, M. D......

Ship-timber in the United States, by William W. Bates...

History of the agriculture of the United States, by Ben: Perley Poore

High farming, as illustrated in the history of the Netherlands, by L. L. Tilden.

Country roads, by Henry F. French...

Condition and resources of Georgia, by Rev. C. W. Howard

California, her agricultural resources, by H. D. Dunn....

dleteorology of 1866, by 4. B. Grosh..

423

430

441

454

472

498

527

538

567

581

611

ILLUSTRATIONS

No. 1.---Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.

2.- Tetofsky, (apple.)

3.-Myers's Nonpareil, (apple.)

4.-Grimes's Golden Pippin, (apple.):

5.-Doyenne d'Alençon, (pear.)

6.-Howell, (pear.)

7.-Dana's Hovey, (pear.)

8.-Governor Wood, (cherry.)

9.--Knight's Early Black, (cherry.)

10.-Downing's Ever bearing Mulberry.

11.-Red Antwerp and Philadelphia, (raspberries.)

12.-Kirtland, (raspberry.)

13.–Naomi, (raspberry.)

14.-Orange, (raspberry.)

15.-Doolittle Black Cap, (raspberry.)

16.-- Cream-pot cow, owned by William H. Slingerland, Albany, New York.

17.-Cream-pot cow, owned by P. W. Jones, Amherst, New Hampshire.

18.-Short-horn bull.

19.-Short-horn cow.

20.-Short-horn ox.

21. --Short-horn bull Third Duke of Geneva, bred by James O. Sheldon, Geneva, New

York.

22.-Short-horn cow Gem of Oxford, bred by James O. Sheldon, Genova, New York.

23.-Norman horse French Napoleon, bred by William McFarlan, Downington, Chester

county, Pennsylvania.

24.-Improved Kentucky sheep, bred by Robert W. Scott, Frankfort, Kentucky.

25.- Improved Kentucky sheep, bred by Robert W. Scott, Frankfort, Kentucky.

26.—Cotswold ram Golden Fleece, owned by John D. Wing, Maple Shade, Dutchess

county, New York.

27.-Infantado ram General Sheridan, bred by E. W. Rogers & Sons, Whallonsburg,

New York,

28.-Infantado and Paula: ycarling ewes, bred by E. W. Rogers & Sons, Whallonsburg,

New York.

29.—Merino ram Ontario, owned by Hon. E. B. Pottle and John Maltman, Ontario

county, New York.

30.-- Merino ewe Tegs, bred by F. B. Sawyer, Webster, New Hampshire.

31.–Pisciculture-Hatching boxes, etc.

32.—Pisciculture-Hatching boxes.

33.-Pisciculture-Artificial spawning bed.

34.–Pisciculture-Fishes.

35.–Pisciculture-Fishes.

36.--Sugar-making in Louisiana in 1751,

REPORT

OF TIE

COMMISSIONER OF AGRICULTURE.

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE,

Washington, D. C., November 20, 1866. SIR: I have the honor to submit, and take pleasure in presenting, this my fifth annual report of the operations of the department under my charge, hoping it will meet your approval, and that of enlightened agriculturists generally. And though the past year has been one of great care and labor, attendant on the continued transition of the nation from a state of war to one of peace—a year during which immense armies have been undergoing transformation into civic and domestic forces, and four millions of slaves have assumed their new and untried relations as frce men-a year, therefore, involving disturbances inseparable from all such great changes—yet, thanks to the Divine overruling wisdom and goodness, and the judicious administration of those in charge of these changes, fewer difficulties and less extensive evils have been experienced than would have occurred in any other nation or under any other form of government. Our people, self-educated and self-governed, and accustomed to exercise their intelligence and freedom under written forms of law, have proved themselves capable not only of enduring the severest trials of a gigantic civil war, but also of passing peacefully and quietly through the most demoralizing changes which a transition from such a war to a state of peace could precipitate upon us. Some of these changos have been more wonderful than the suppression of the rebellion itself. But the changes which I fervently believe are yet to follow will probably be more wonderful, though less sudden and immediately apparent, and far more beneficent, because involving no destruction of interests, no sudden transitions, or sufferings, in classes or individuals.

Already favored by propitious Providence in giving us genial seasons, our farmers are laying widely and deeply the firm foundations of a new and increasing national prosperity. And as their peaceful conquests are extended the scars of earth made by devastating war will be effaced, and the heavy burden of debt which it piled upon the shoulders of our people will be gradually lightened, and finally and surely lifted.

The agricultural condition of the northern States was never more flourishing. High prices, accessible markets, and crops of average abundance have insured good profits; and, as a result, mortgages have been paid, farm buildings erected, permanent improvements accomplished, farm implements and machinery obtained, and, in thousands of instances, a surplus invested in government funds.

Now that agricultural restoration has commenced in States lately in rebellion,

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