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“ The wretched miserable want which tion and guidance of the Evangelical I witnessed formerly when I was still a Church. The divine became from this visitor, has urged and driven me to give time forward preëminently a preacher. to this catechism, or Christian teaching, “ Therefore mark this, thou parochial such a small simple form. God help me, priest and preacher! Our office has now what wretchedness have I seen! how become another thing than it was under ignorant are the common people, parti- the pope ; it is now real and beneficial. cularly in the villages, of all Christian Therefore has it much more trouble and knowledge! and how many of the parochial labor, danger and temptations, and with priests are unskillful, and unfit, alas! to all that less reward and thanks in this teach them! Oye bishops! how will ye world; but Christ himself will be our answer it unto Christ that ye have deserted reward, so we labor faithfully.” the people thus disgracefully ?"

In the picture all the elements of evanIt was his greatest joy and greatest gelical worship are indicated: the sacrarestorative to see the fruits of his labor ments, by the baptismal font and the altar; ripen among the new generation. “Ten- music, by the organ and the hymn-books ; der youths and maidens grow up so well the duty of benevolence, by the poor-box. instructed in the catechism and the Scrip. We are at the same time reminded of the tures, that it soothes my heart to see how, fact, that Luther and the renovated Church at present, young boys and maidens pray were entirely free from the heartless and believe more, and can tell more of fanatical endeavor to exclude the arts God and of Christ, than formerly, and from public worship. even now, all foundation-convents and “ I am not of opinion that all the arts schools can. Young people like them are are to be rooted out by the gospel, as some truly a paradise, such as the world cannot ultra-divines pretend ; but would wish to show. And all this the Lord buildeth ; as see all the arts employed, and music though he would say: 'Well, my much- particularly, in, the service of Him who beloved Duke Hanns, I confide to thee my has given and created them.” noblest treasure, my cheerful paradise ; “O! how I trembled when I had to thou shalt be father over it, as my garden- ascend the pulpit for the first time! But er and fosterer.' As if God himself were I was forced to preach, and to the brothers your daily guest and ward, because his first of all.

Under this very word, and his children who keep his word, pear-tree where we are now standing, I are your daily guests and wards, and eat adduced fifteen arguments to Dr. Staupitz


against my vocation for the pulpit : at last The picture represents the great reform- I said, ' Dr. Staupitz, you wish to kill me; er in the midst of a number of children; I shall not live three months.' He anto whom, according to the text, “ Let swered me, "Well, our Lord has great little children come unto me,” he expounds business on hand above, and wants able his catechism, while Jonas is distributing men.'” “I do not like Philip to be presthe book among them; and in the back- ent at my lectures or sermons; but I ground are seen a circle of attentive place the cross before me and say, · Philip, schoolmasters, who are preparing them- Jonas, Pomer, and the rest, have nothing selves by listening to his teaching for to do with the matter;' and then I endeavor the duties of their calling.

to fancy that no one has sat in the pulpit abler than myself.”

Dr. Jonas said to him, “Sir doctor, I cannot at all follow

you in your preaching." Luther replied, As Luther had translated the Word of “I cannot myself; for my subject is often God for his people into their mother suggested either by something personal, tongue ; as he had intrepreted it in his or some private matter, according to times, elementary work for the understanding of circumstances, and hearers. Were I children ; so did he wish to announce it young, I should like to retrench many to the assembled community in sermons, things in my sermons, for I have been too as an explanation, development, and ap- wordy." “I wish the people to be plication of the word of God, of the revel- taught the catechism well. I found myation of God in Christ. Preaching became self upon it in all my sermons, and I the principal instrument for the founda- preach as simply as possible. I want the

your bread."


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common people, and children, and serv ones come together; and, then, we make ants, to understand me. I do not enter it so curled and finical that God himself the pulpit for the sake of the learned ; wondereth at us. “ Albert Dürer, the they have my books."

famous painter of Nuremberg, used to say Dr. Erasmus Alberus, being about to that he took no pleasure in paintings leave for the March, asked Luther how he charged with colors, but in those of a less should preach before the prince. “ Your ambitious kind. I say the same of sersermons,” said he,“ought to be addressed, mons.” “O! how happy should I have not to princes, but to the rude and simple been when I was in the monastery of Erpeople. If, in mine, I was thinking of furth, if I could once, but once, have heard Melancthon and the other doctors, I should but one poor little word preached on the do no good ; but I preach solely for the Gospel, or on the least of the Psalms.” ignorant, and that pleases all. Hebrew, “Nothing is more acceptable or Greek, and Latin, I spare until we learned useful to the general run of hearers, than

Vol. V.-23

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to preach the law and examples. Ser- struction of men, has dictated to Moses? mons on grace and on justification are cold But we wish our ears to be purer than the to their ears." Among the qualities mouth of the Holy Ghost." which Luther desiderates in a preacher, is a fine person, and that he be such as to THE BACRAMENT OF THE HOLY COMMUNION IN BOTE make himself loved by good women and maidens. In his Treatise on Monastic “ THE WORD AND THE SACRAMENT," was Vows, Luther asks pardon of the reader for Luther the motto and symbol of the for saying many things which are usually true Christian Church. As a pendant to passed over in silence. “Why not dare the preaching, the artist has chosen, to say what the Holy Ghost, for the in- | therefore, the most sacred rite of the




evangelical community—the celebration | being either split into a number of sects of the Lord's supper in its original mode unconnected with the great Christian and form. Luther presents the cup to his Church, or driven from its object by the elector, John Frederick, while Dr. Bugen- arbitrary opinions of the schools. “Whohagen breaks the bread. By retaining and ever doth not require and long for the insisting upon the “real presence" in the sacrament, of him it may be feared that sacrament, Luther strove to save the re- he despises it, and is no Christian ; even formed Church from the double danger of as he is no Christian who doth not hear


and believe in the gospel. But who doth zeal, or all these, perchance, inextricably not reverence the sacrament, that is a sign mingled, wrought in the mind of him who, that he has no sin, no world, no death, no in that lone chamber, still reverently predanger, no hell; that is to say, he believeth served and reverently shown, cast aside in none, although he be sunk in them over every dream of his youth and manhood, head and ears. Contrariwise, he needeth Aung away every once-cherished purpose, not either grace, eternal life, the kingdom and devoted the first hours of his slow of heaven, Christ, or God."

recovery to toil on crutches up the ascent to the church of Our Lady of Montserrat,

there to hang up his lance and sword, and IGNATIUS LOYOLA, FOUNDER OF THE

to vow before her altar, with devotion JESUITS.

unimagined by the knight of romance, all HAT country but Spain could have his future days to her service. Strongly

produced that wonderful man, Igna- is his indomitable will displayed in all the tius Loyola, and how well befitting that incidents of his after-life ; his weary pilland is bis history! The handsome, bold grimage to Jerusalem ; his placing himyoung noble, entering life as page at the self on the same form with boys studying brilliant court of Ferdinand ; then as a grammar, that he might obtain the scanty soldier of fortune, pursuing a career of knowledge without which he could not romantic bravery in the desolating wars become a priest ; his persevering efforts of the times; fierce, reckless, pleasure to establish his order, in spite of such loving, seeking, amid enjoyment and keen determined opposition ; even the legends excitement, food for his fevered spirit, of his miracles and visions, all bear the until, in his thirtieth year, struck down by same impress of stern conflict and victory. a cannon-ball at the siege of Pampeluna, Wonderfully did he rule his order, and yet wounded through both legs, he is borne, rules it from the tomb! but Ignatius had toilsomely and painfully, many a weary been a soldier, and he carried into his league in the rude litter to his native val- community, as it has been truly said, the ley, Loyola—that valley to which he is to ideas and habits of a soldier. But then we give so wide a renown. And there is he think that the type of the genius of his borne to his old ancestral mansion, to the “ society” must not be sought for in the chamber where he first saw light, a help- quiet orderly submission of the soldier of less and maimed sufferer, struck down in modern days; we must look rather at the full tide of life and hope. Here for the blind submission to the one favorite long months he lay; and how clouded leader, to that fierce, reckless spirit that must his future prospects have appeared yielded, indeed, implicit obedience to one, when, chafing under his slow recovery, but as the price of unlimited freedom from and anxious to prevent the deformity he all other rule which characterized the soldfeared, he caused his wounds to be re ier of fortune in his own day. Such had opened, and a protruding bone sawed off! he seen in the Spanish and Italian wars ; Terribly was the indomitable will of the such were the free companies that fought founder of that mightiest order shown in under Bourbon, Pescara, and De Leyra ; this! but the agony was endured in vain : such were they who, at the bidding of Ignatius was a hopeless cripple. Still Cortez and Pizarro, followed them over tossing on his restless bed, the thoughts unknown seas! and as devoted, as unof the knight turned to his favorite ro- scrupulous a band of followers had he. mances, and he asked for them. None In so many ways are they, especially the could be found : so the lives of the saints Franciscan and Dominican, connected with were brought to him. What had been the progress of society in Europe, with the history of “the Society of Jesus,” the advancing cause of freedom, with the where had been many an important, many earlier struggles of the Reformation, that a mysterious episode in the history of we cannot but be interested in every atmodern Europe, if that restless, chafing tempt that is made to bring these influenspirit, at this, the very crisis of his fate, tial communities before the attention of the had, like Luther, opened the Bible? Who historical student, well assured that a just shall say? But who shall also say what appreciation of their efforts and their charshaping thoughts, whether of wild enthu- acter cannot fail to throw additional light sias of towering ar on, of ous on the history of the middle ages.

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A VISIT TO ABBOTSFORD AND ITS VICINITY. was on a bright calm morning toward | had not, therefore, proceeded far before he

the close of September that we started stopped us by exclaiming, “ There are the from the inn at Galashiels, where we had woods and house of Abbotsford ; and arrived at a late hour on the preceding there, behind them, are the Eildon hills! evening, to visit Abbotsford and some of There you see Gala-water chafing as it the adjacent scenes, which the genius of joins the Tweed. And yonder are the the mighty minstrel had invested with suf- braes of Yarrow, and the vale of Ettrick !" ficient interest to our minds to render them It was impossible not to catch some porthe chief object of our northern tour. tion of the enthusiasm with which he thus

One of our party (we were four in num- uttered names that we had often heard ber, and on foot—the true mode of enjoy- and read of with emotion, especially as ing such an excursion) was well acquainted the beautiful scenery to which they bewith the locality of every spot with which longed was now spread in bright reality the slightest interest was associated ; and before us, and we learned to distinguish was, moreover, admirably qualified to act each amid the calm light shed around as cicerone by an unbounded enthusiasm them from a cloudless autumn sky. for everything connected, however re- Abbotsford is situated about two miles motely, with the person, the genius, or from Galashiels, between that town and the memory of the illustrious poet. We Selkirk. The house occupies the crest

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