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And when we remind ourselves that so “In the mean time, the number of candidates much of this popular increase is from for the ministry is diminishing, in all denomabroad, that Europe is in an “ exodus” to
inations, not only relatively, but absolutely.
Nay, it is diminishing more rapidly than the ward our shores—that its ignorance and figures indicate, for of the reputed number of vice, wave overtopping wave, rolls in upon candidates a considerable portion never enter the land—the danger assumes a still more
the ministry; and of those who enter it, & startling aspect. In about forty-six years ing
for other pursuits. And what is the remedy
greater and greater number are annually leavfrom this day our population shall equal proposed in this unusual crisis? It has been the present aggregate population of En- recommended, in order to meet this emergency, gland, France, Switzerland, Spain, Portu to reduce the cost of ministerial education, to gal, Sweden, and Denmark. A step fur- extend the term of ministerial study, and to inther in the calculation presents a prospect istry. In other words, we are told to address
crease the pecuniary emoluments of the minstill more surprising and impressive; in stronger motives to the self-interests of men, about seventy-six years from to-day this that so we may induce them to enter upon &
When the mighty mass of commingled peoples will calling essentially self-denying. have swollen to the stupendous aggregate the gates, and the crisis requires every man to
whole power of the adversary is thundering at of two hundred and forty-six millions— stand to his arms, we content ourselves with equaling the present population of all Eu- offering large bounty to officers, and allow every
citizen to retire from the conflict. Was ever a rope. According to the statistics of life, victory gained by strategy such as this? In
our own denomination, it is said that we have there are hundreds of thousands of our
four thousand Churches destitute of preachers of present population-one twenty-ninth at the gospel. What is to be done to meet this least-who will witness this truly grand deficiency? Does all that we are doing furnish result. What have we to do within that
us with the shadow of a hope that this demand
can be supplied ? Nay, multiply our present time? Our present intellectual and moral
efforts to any practicable extent, and compared provisions for the people are, as we have with the work to be done, the discrepancy besaid, far short of the wants of our present tween the means and the end is such as to twenty-five millions, and in seventy-six awaken the feeling of the ludicrous. Is it not
time, then, to examine the whole subject from years we must provide for more than two its foundations ? May not some light be dehundred and twenty additional millions— rived from considering attentively the doctrine and these millions, to a great extent, com
and examples of Christ and his apostles ?” posed of semibarbarous foreigners, and Most inevitably must we adopt more their mistrained children.
immediate means of recruiting the minHow are we to meet, in this compara- | isterial ranks, and of bringing the popular tively short time, the national necessity energies and talents of the Church to for religious teachers, to say nothing of bear in our evangelical labors, or not only the number we should send into “ all the shall we fail of our duty to the foreign world,” in fulfilling the divine commis- world, but to our domestic field itself. sion? Already the land suffers for want We have said that the views of this of preachers. The complaint comes from sermon have been signally approved by all its length and breadth. Every denom- God in the history of the Church. Dr. ination utters it. The Christian ministry Wayland reviews the example of the early is unquestionably in a comparative de- Church. We are all familiar with it :cline throughout the country. Temporary
“No sooner had our Lord collected a little causes may contribute to the melancholy band of disciples, than he employed a large porfact—the absorption of our young men by tion of them as missionaries to announce the money-making pursuits, through the recent approach of his kingdom. From his small comexcitements produced by the California pany of followers, he chose first twelve, and
then seventy, whom he sent abroad on this er. mines, and the great consequent outbreak rand.
If every Church among us furnished of all sorts of business. But independ- heralds of the gospel in like proportion, there ently of these interferences, how are we would be no lack of ministers. Observe, again, to provide, within seventy-five years, for the circumstances under which, after the us
cension of our Lord, the Church of Christ comthe pulpits which which shall be demanded
menced its victorious march over the then by two hundred and twenty additional mil- known world. Against it were arrayed not only lions of people ? Look at the question, the interests, and lusts, and pride of man, but pause over it.
the power of every government, and all the inDr. Wayland speaks with emphasis on
fluences emanating from a luxurious, refined,
and intelligent civilization. On what did this view of the subject :
Christ rely, as his human instruments, to pros.
trate this rast fabric of tasteful, venerable, and lets along the water-courses, in the jungle, cultivated idolatry? He made no attempt to whose miasmata are fatal to a foreigner, uscept undermine and overthrow paganism in general. for a few months in the year. During this brief He published no discourses intended to prepare interval the missionary traveled among them, the public mind for the coming revolution. He preaching Christ to one, or two, or ten, or sent abroad no schoolmasters, to instill the prin- twenty, as he could collect hearers. The Holy ciples of secular truth into the minds of the Spirit was poured out, and sinners were conyoung. On the contrary, he met the whole verted. Small Churches were formed, and, from power of the adversary face to face, and brought the necessity of the case, left for the remainder divine truth into immediate collision with long of the year to themselves. With the spirit of cherished and much-loved moral error. He primitive Christianity, these rude men pointed charged every disciple to proclaim the gospel at their neighbors to the Saviour. Ministerial once to every creature, He selected those who gifts manifested themselves among them as they were to be the first preachers of the word, the were needed, and a large number became minfirst ministers of his Church, from the lower isters of the word. The work of God was thus and middle walks of life-men destitute of all carried forward with remarkable power. The the advantages of special intellectual culture, brother whose labors among them have been so whom their enemies reproached as unlettered eminently blessed, worn down by incessant toil, and ignorant. As cultivated talent was re was obliged to leave his station for a year or quired, it was provided in the person of the two, for the recovery of his health. On his apostle to the Gentiles. As the Church com return, fearful that his flock had been scattered menced, so, to the close of the inspired record, during his absence, he inquired with trembling it continued. “Ye see your calling, brethren,' solicitude concerning their condition. You may said the apostle, “how that not many wise men judge of his/ surprise, when he learned that after the flesh, not many mighty, not many about fifteen hundred persons were then awaitnoble are called, but God hath chosen the weak ing baptism. This blessed result had been acthings of the world to confound the things that accomplished by men hardly elevated at all are mighty, and base things of the world, and above their brethren, for they had no knowledge things that are despised, hath God chosen, yea, whatever, beyond that contained in the New things that are not, to bring to naught things Testament, and the few books and tracts which, that are, that no flesh should glory in his pres within a few years, had been translated into ence.' Under the conviction of these truths, their language. The contact of soul with soul Paul labored in the ministry. Though a well was thus leavening the lump. Pastors, as they educated man, who had profited above many were needed, have been raised up among them; that were his equals, yet when he proclaimed and these are now, in a large measure, supported the gospel in retined and luxurious Corinth, by the voluntary effort of the brethren. Thus although the preaching of the cross was to the is the religion of Christ displaying through this Jews a stumbling-block, and to the Greeks fool whole region its power of self-extension, by the ishness, he resolved to know nothing among preaching of the gospel attended by the power men but Jesus Christ and him crucified. He of the Holy Ghost. If the question be asked, did from choice, precisely as his uneducated Could this work have been carried on without brethren did from necessity. It is surprising the aid of men of more cultivated minds and to observe the entire simplicity of those efforts, larger knowledge than the Karens ? I answer, by which, in an incredibly short period, the Certainly not. But I ask again, Could this gospel was planted throughout the whole Roman work have been carried on without the labors empire. We can discover no means employed of these rude and unlettered men, who went to accomplish this result, but proclaiming to everywhere preaching the word ? The answer all men repentance toward God and faith in our is the same, Certainly not. Our conclusion, Lord Jesus Christ, imposing on every regen- | then, is, that God requires, and that he employs erated man the duty, in turn, of proclaiming in his vineyard all classes of laborers; and the the good news to his brethren, always relying, union of all is necessary to the accomplishment and relying wholly, on the power of the Holy of his work.” Ghost." Our author proceeds to argue
He turns to Germany-educated, read
that nothing peculiar to the times of the apostles ilar results have attended the same proc
ing Germany—and shows that there simjustified this course-nothing that does
ess: not justify it now. There was learning, subtlety, philosophy, fashionable taste and
“In the year 1835, a Baptist Church of befashionable pride then as now, and the of seven members, imbued in a remarkable de
lievers was constituted in Hamburgh, consisting same process is found powerful now as
gree with the spirit of apostolic Christianity. then. IIe instances some examples in the of this Church, Rev. Mr. Oncken was ordained history of the Baptist missions :
pastor. That Church of seven members has al
ready multiplied itself into 42 churches, sus“Survey our missionary field, and observe taining 356 stations, numbering 4,215 comthe places where the preaching of the gospel municants, baptized, on profession of their has been attended with the most remarkable faith, into the name of the Lord Jesus. Each
We number among the Karens, for instance, more converts than in all our other missions together. And how was the gospel death and emigration. Many of them are now residing
* Exclusive of those who have been removed by preached to them? They live in scattered hain
in our western states.
Church is supplied with a pastor. Churches tion, and preparatory, we hope, to a uniand stations are established in Northern Ger-versal reform of the kind. many, eastward from Hamburgh to the borders
We have said that the views of this serof Russia ; quite extensively through Southern Germany; and to some extent in Sweden and mon are compatible with the Holy ScripDenmark. Ou no other Churches in Christen- tures, and the nature of the ministerial dom does the smile of Heaven so signally rest. work. Important as the subject is, we They are, emphatically, a field which the Lord would not impair the impression of these has blessed. And how have these results been accomplished ? By following the example left remarks by prolonging them too much, us by Christ and his apostles, the little one and can therefore only say here, that whathas become a thousand, and a small nation a ever may be the reader's personal opinstrong people. Every disciple acknowledged ions respecting the question of the divine the obligation laid upon him by the last command of our Lord. The Holy Ghost bestowed authority and prerogatives of the minupon the Churches ministerial gifts adapted to isterial office, we soo not why he cannot the work before them. These gifts were chor- indorse the utilitarian reforms proposed ished, and called into exercise, Preaching was by our author. He does not deny a regucommenced wherever the Lord opened a door, Stations were established, and the men were
lar and stated pastorato-he affirms it. found to occupy them. These stations grew He only contends for auxiliaries to it; into Churches, by which other stations were auxiliaries by which alone it can be, in any sustained. Thus Churches were multiplied in degree, proportioned to the exigencies of every direction; the Holy Spirit was everywhere poured out, and much people was added to the the world, -auxiliaries which constituted, Lord. Some of these Churches now contain two numerically at least, the chief agency that or three hundred members. Almost all of them won, under apostolic control, the primitive sustain stations, some of them as many as
conquests of the Church. twenty or thirty; and, though it may seem incredible to some of us, all this glorious work
In conclusion, we would urge the mohas been accomplished, in classical Germany, mentous suggestion of this seasonable diswithout the aid of a single classically educated course on the attention of our Christian laborer. Would it not be possible for us to readers. There has doubtless been, for learn a lesson from our brethren in Germany ?”
some time, an increased tendency toward He contends also, that the history of its opinions in some of the “evangelical” the Baptist Church in this country is a Churches; but they have been only incidemonstration of the doctrine. What may dental to the special religious movements be called lay-preachers, pushed its prog- of the times—they have not taken a sufress everywhere. The same may be said ficiently definite shape. They have needed of Methodism. Down to within thirty the clear and emphatic enunciation which years, there were not six graduates in President Wayland has given them. Every the Methodist ministry; nevertheless, day is adding to their urgency. " Within these two denominations now constitute the lifetime,” says our author, “of men much more than two-thirds of the Prot- who now hear me, the question will probaestantism of the nation. Transatlantic bly be decided, whether the kingdom of Methodism, in advance of all the other Christ is now to proceed to universal vicProtestant dissent of England, is another tory, or ages of intellectual and moral example. The great movement in Ire- darkness are again to overspread the land, which, according to the papal papers earth. It is for such a crisis as this that of that country, threatens the overthrow the disciples of Christ are now called of the Irish Catholic Church, is owing upon to prepare.” chiefly to lay-laborers — the Protestant Bible readers. Romanism itself has, in ConceIT.-Conceit is the most contemptsome instances, provided for lay-agency in ible, and one of the most odious qualities its ecclesiastical system. The most enero ( in the world. It is vanity driven from all getic organization in its history, or in the other shifts, and forced to appeal to itself history of the world — Jesuitism – was for admiration. Conceit may be deemed founded by a layman, and is still largely a restless, overweening, petty, obtrusive conducted by laymen. We have recently delight in our qualifications, without any noticed attempts on the part of leading reference to their real value, or to the apEnglish Churchmen to procure the sanc- probation of others, merely because they tion of British prelates for a system of i are ours, and for no other reason what lay assistants. The colportage of tract ever. It is the extreme of selfishness and societies is a movement in the same direc- folly.--Hazlitt.
[For the National Magazine.]
envied the Churchman, and the Church
man despised the Dissenter. He knew GEORGE FOX AND THE EARLY
not therefore whether he could find ease, QUAKERS.
even near the acknowledged altars of
God. GAMG with Deathern breches abroad? EORGE FOX! And who was he?
But he ght for it-for ease of conbrimmed hat, a rough plain coat, long hair, desire to be educated for the pulpit, as
science and rest of soul. He did not and piercing eyes; under whose fixed
some of his friends wished; and he was, gaze many a stout-hearted sinner was made to tremble. We must not regard
more consistently with his own views, him, however, with too great an aversion, his business. While thus engaged, he did
employed with a shoemaker in learning nor turn away from those immediately associated with him in disgust. They were
not lose sight of his spiritual interests, all men for the age in which they lived,
but persevered in a serious conduct, such and served their generation well
. They sin. Indeed, he could not be enticed into
as became one who was struggling against did more: they impressed the image of their thoughts and habits upon their pos- in this respect
, occurred during his nine
dissipation. An instance of his firmness terity. Mr. Penn, an honored one among teenth year. He then attended a fair, their number, thus describes them :
where he fell into company with two of “They were changed men themselves, before his youthful relatives, and as they were they went about to change others. Their happy together, they resolved on prolonghearts were rent, as well as their garments; and they knew the power, and the work of God ing their enjoyment over some drink.
And this was seen in the great Beer was ordered, and the first draught alteration it made, and their stricter mode of taken. This was enough for George; life, and more godly conversation that im- but his two companions were not so easily mediately followed it."
satisfied. They called for fresh mugs, George himself became a reformer at and resolved that the one of their number, a very early period of life. He had who first ceased to drink, should pay the scarcely attained the twenty-second year “score." But they spread this net in of his age when he began to preach. vain. Their intended victim took them How he was led into the work of the at their word, threw down a groat to pay ministry may be inferred from his pre- for their excesses, withdrew himself from vious history.
their company, and thus escaped the disHe was born in Leicestershire, in the year 1624
, of respectable parents, who, he Soon after this little occurrence, he left thought, possessed spiritual life. They his home and commenced his itinerant gave him some instruction in his boyhood, career. As yet he was without any and led him to the parish church, where satisfactory experience of the work of he often listened to its minister, Mr. God within him. He only saw the light Stevens, and became interested in his as it shone-alas, too feebly!—in the dark discourses.
places of his heart; and knew, through it, He was naturally thoughtful some- that his condition was not a safe one: but times too serious for his companions. he did not see with clearness into the His conscience was tender; and when he depth of his sin, nor how he might be looked out upon the world, and saw its healed. He knew something of Christ, gayeties and frivolity, its forgetfulness of but he did not know him as the great God, and its deceit and miscalled ac- physician. He was sometimes in despair; complishments, his soul recoiled within for while his lap-stone, hammer, and awl him. He would not choose it as the place seemed to employ his attention, thoughts of his rest. He turned his eyes toward of eternity weighed down his soul with the sanctuary; but the shadows of sin had unspeakable sorrow. This was the true gathered so thickly there, that he could cause of his restlessness. He wandered discern but little light. The church about, not as a preacher of righteousness, buildings were steeple houses," the but as a lost spirit seeking salvation. ministers were “hirelings,” and the people This, the outward world cannot give. were worldly-some of them sensual and The discourses of eloquent divines could devilish, so he thought. The Dissenter | not furnish it. The onversation of friends
could not bestow it. He was not able to of his day, which he frequently did: not, find it anywhere. He went to Sutter- however, because he did not esteem the worth, to Northampton, to Buckingham- laborer“ worthy of his hire;" but, in the shire, to Barnet, and to London, and came language of Penn, he, and
they, the back again; but still sadness was at his Quakers, refuse to pay tithes or mainheart. Hoping to divert his thoughts, tenance to a national ministry, and that his family wished him to get married; but for two reasons: the one was that they he replied, “I must first get wisdom.” believed all compelled maintenance even The expedient failed.
to gospel ministers to be unlawful, because Several things transpired about this expressly contrary to Christ's commandtime which transformed his character and at least, that the maintenance of gospel changed the entire man, Wearied with ministers should not be forced ;” and behis efforts to obtain peace of mind through cause the national ministers generally his spiritual advisers, he turned his soul to lacked the baptism of the Holy Spirit. Christ- to Christ only; for as though a But what did Fox preach? Many things voice had spoken to him, these words were which perhaps we do not approve of. impressed upon his mind : “ There is one In our judgment, he did not sufficiently who can speak to thy condition.” This respect the Christian Sabbath, nor treat impression always followed him: it was persons of consideration with proper defercontinually in his thoughts, “There is one His abandonment of the sacraments Christ Jesus, who can speak to thy con was perfectly inexcusable, only on these dition.” He sought that one. He looked grounds : he was a layman, and lacked the to the crucified, and lo! he was comforted. human authority to administer them; and The true light shone in his breast, and all being surrounded with Churchmen, was gloom was dispelled—the living word was driven into the sentiment, that our blessed there, and diffused life throughout his Lord never instituted any observances despiritual nature. How insignificant did a signed to be perpetual in the Church, whose mere parson (such as many parsons were continuance depended on human interferin that day) now appear unto him! He ence alone. It was an unfortunate error; had found many of them to be very feeble and one from which the position which aids to a sin-sick soul. Though trained to Mr. Wesley occupied as a minister the ministry from their boyhood, they had afterward preserved him; for though he been proved to be unqualified to lead even employed lay-preachers, he held on to a poor shoemaker to Jesus. With all the institutions of Christ our Saviour, their learning, he had found them unfit for which are still preserved among his their work. This experience was the oc followers. casion of the discovery of what seemed to In other respects who will dare to say, be a new truth, and one almost divine. that he was not a true preacher of rightIt was this, as expressed in his own words: eousness? The immortal John Bunyan “Being at Oxford or Cambridge is not objected to many of his views concerning sufficient to fit and qualify a man to be a Christ, but ignorantly; for it is evident minister of Christ.”
from Fox's own writings that he did not He began to preach. He felt himself hold them. He preached Christ as an to be deficient in education; but had he atonement for the sins of the whole world. not the Bible, the great book—the only His youthful confession in respect to his perfectly reliable book on theology in sufferings was declared by a Church the world? He made it his companion. minister to be “good” and “ full ;” and In fields, and orchards, and hollow-trees, the testimony of one of his hearers, who ne took it and studied its contents, until listened to him toward the close of his he became perfectly acquainted with them. ministry, was: “I perceive you exalt One lesson particularly in the words of Christ, in all his offices, above all that Jesus arrested his attention. The state I ever heard before.” But he did not only of the English Church seemed to be at represent Christ as an outward atonement, variance with it. It was this: “Freely but as the inward word, which speaks to ye have received, freely give.” He seized the very heart; and as the light within, upon it as his motto. It was also an which reflects itself through every part of offensive weapon, almost irresistible, when man's moral nature. And he held, that he wished to attack the established usage “ Christ within us is not a dreamy un