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of Rome found sepulture in these recesses. spoken of, and with the familiarity and inThe · Acts of the Martyrs' relate many difference that men feel who live on a attempts made by the persecutors of the volcano; yet a population strong-hearted, early Christians, to trace them in these of quick impulses, nerved alike to suffer retreats. But the entrances were or to die, and in numbers, resolution, and numerous, scattered for miles over the physical force, sufficient to have hurled Campagna, and the labyrinths below so their oppressors from the throne of the complicated, and blocked up in various world, had they not deemed it their duty places, that pursuit was generally use to kiss the rod, to love their enemies, to less. Occasionally, however, these ef- bless those that cursed them, and to subforts were successful, and the Catacombs mit, for their Redeemer's sake, to the became not only the burial-place of the powers that be.' Here, in these dens martyrs, but also the scene of their last and caves of the earth,' they lived ; here, sufferings."

they died-a 'spectacle' in their lifetime Several instances of martyrdom in the 'to men and angels,' and on their death a Catacombs are on record, and it is prob- ' triumph' to mankind-a triumph of which able that terrific scenes of slaughter-the the echoes still float around the walls of shouts of the persecutors and soldiery, Rome, and over the desolate Campagna, mingling with the hymns, prayers and while those that once thrilled the capitol sobs of the hunted martyr throngs—were are silenced, and the walls that returned often witnessed by these solemn retreats. them have long since crumbled into There is an inscription on a martyr's dust." tomb which, with the usual brevity and After three hundred years of refuge, simplicity of those records, refers affect- and suffering, and praying, in these dark ingly to an incident of the kind. It is intricacies, the sufferers triumphed. Their dated in the Fifth Persecution, A. D. 161. cause could not die. “ Christianity," "GENVA ENIM FLECTENS VERO DEO SA

says Bishop Kip, “emerging from these CRIFICATVRVS AD SVPPLICIA DVCTTVRO recesses, walked boldly on the soil beTEMPORA INFAVSTA QVIBVS INTER SA neath which she had so long been glad to CRA ET VOTA NE IN CAVERNIS QVIDEM

seek concealment." The labyrinth of SALVARI POSSIMVS."

rude alleys had become walled with the "For while on his knees, and about to sacrifice to the true God, he was led away to execution. O sad

graves of martyrs-men, women, and little times! in which sacred rites and prayers, even in children who had counted not their lives caderns, afford no protection to us!"

dear unto them in comparison with fidelity Throughout the series of terrible perse- to their Lord; and now pilgrims resortcutions which, in attempting to annihilate ed to them for meditation and prayer. only sustained and kept pure the primitive Jerome records his visits with his RoChurch of Rome, these caverns are often man brethren. The dying, not now alreferred to, even in the edicts of the gov- lowed to share the honors of martyrdom eroment, and it was sometimes proposed with the humble saints of the Catacombs, to destroy them, as the only way to de- wished, nevertheless, to share their graves; stroy the ever resuscitating sect. Lord and, writes our author, “Popes and preLindsay (Christian Art, vol. I, p. 4) says lates, kings and queens, emperors and eloquently :-"

:-"To our classic associations, empresses, the highest in rank and the indeed, Rome was still, under Trajan and most devout in life, or most penitent in the Antonines, the city of the Cæsars, the death, were for some centuries interred in metropolis of pagan idolatry—in the pages these crypts, in the neighborhood of the of her poets and historians we still linger tombs of Roman slaves and criminals, among the triumphs of the capitol, the Christian laborers and hewers of stone, shows of the Coliseum-or if we read of and the early martyrs. Even from the a Christian being dragged before the remote parts of Europe, the bodies of tribunal, or exposed to the beasts, we illustrious persons were carried thither for think of him as one of a scattered com sepulture, as, a few centuries later, princes munity, few in number, spiritless in action, and nobles commanded in their wills, that and politically insignificant. But all this their bodies, or at least their hearts, while there was living beneath the visible, should be carried to Palestine and buried an invisible Rome—a population unbeeded, in the Holy Land.” Macfarlane gives the unreckoned--thought of vaguely, vaguely I names of at least ten kings and emperors


who were buried there—ignoble though the French have, within a few years, proroyal dust among the precious remains of duced some valuable volumes respecting the thousands of unknown martyrs whose them, and the French government has "record,” scarcely traceable on these walls, provided for a magnificent work, which shines in living light on high."

is to imbody all the important results of Bishop Kip traces, somewhat irrel- the researches of a commission which it evantly, perhaps, to his design, yet with sent to the Catacombs. much interest, the history of the Cata Bishop Kip's volume is, we believe, the combs during the Middle Ages. The only one yet produced by our own country Huns under Attila, and the Goths under on the subject; it is a faithful, though a Totila, the Lombards and the Saracens, succinct account of these interesting ansuccessively ransacked them for treasure; tiquities, giving their history, with numerand during the medieval civil wars of ous descriptive specimens, and soberlyItaly, the nobles and their feudal slaves drawn deductions. The style of his treatise often met in deadly combat in these silent is most happily congenial with the theme ; and hallowed passages, which gleamed it is fervid and devout, and not unfrequently with the light of torches and echoed eloquent—well adapted to give not only with the war shouts, “ The Colonna! the a popular interest, but a salutary popular Colonna!” and, “ Beware of the bear's effect to the work. In a subsequent numhug!" while along the walls might be ber we shall present illustrated descripseen, through the broken slabs, the skeleton tions of the tombs and symbols of the faces of the dead—the dead who had Cataconibs ; with some of the theological braved the weapons of blood for Christ deductions which they afford. in life, and could not now be disturbed by their clangor in the hallowed sleep of death. Solitary pilgrims, too, in still later times,

[For the National Magazine.] found their way to these quiet depths, with

THE SUMMONS. devout though sometimes superstitious hearts, to pray and to meditate. An inscription as late as 1321 is found with the

METHINKS I hear following noble passage — noble in its Funeral bells my requiem toll ! heroic and poetic sentiment, though tinged

Swells on my ear

The knell which summons my reluctant soul. with the ideas of the age :—“Gather together, O Christians, in these caverns,

And must I die? to read the holy books, to sing hymns to

Thou spectral shadow with uplifted dart, the honor of martyrs and the saints that

O pass me by!

Earth's glowing charms well satisfy my heart. here lie buried, having died in the Lord ; to sing psalms for those who are now

Take me not yet, dying in the faith. There is light in While round my path upspring the gentle flowers, this darkness. There is music in these

Whose leaves are wet tombs.”

With sparkling pearls, scatter'd by vernal

showers. Subsequently the Catacombs became comparatively neglected, and indeed for

Let me live on,

Till winter's breath has blanch'd gotten. Their entrances were blocked up


head with

snow; by the caving in of the tufa, and not till

When youth has flownthe researches of Bosio in the sixteenth

And hope departs-0 then, I 'll gladly go! century were they reopened. That assiduous ecclesiastic devoted thirty years to

In vain I pray!

Death's icy hand is feeling for my heart : exploring and recording the memorials of

Fading awaythe labyrinth. It became his own sanc The flashing visions of the earth depart. tuary; and he spent so much of his time in its darkness, that it is said the “light To wander blindly through thy murky gloom:

I come, O grave ! of the sun was painful to his eyes.” Since

A guide I cravehis day, successive antiquarians have con- A light, to cheer the darkness of the tomb. tinued the researches, some of them devoting their lives to the task. Boldetti

Trembling I trust

That He who thro' the Vale of Death has gone, spent more than thirty years in studying

When life is hush'd, the tombs and crypts. The English and Will guide me onward to a brighter home.



RAYMOND were raised in New-England, and were of the genuine Puritan stock. The mothers of both were left in widowhood during the revolutionary struggle,' and the children passed the critical period of youth without the protection and supervision of the parent upon whom the most weighty part of family government depends.

They had “reached their teens” when the struggle of the “colonies” seemed to be hanging in very doubtful suspense. Mrs. Raymond's father died in the army, and her mother was left poor and dependent with a sickly infant at her breast. Ann was about fifteen when this event occurred, and upon her

« WILL YOU TAKE A GLASS ?" necessarily devolved a

"At the last it biteth like a serpent, and stingeth like an adder." large share of the labor of the house, as well as the business out hardened by severe physical labor, and of doors. During “the hard winter,” she rendered elastic by the confidence which was obliged to bring wood from the neigh- honesty of purpose and innocency of life boring hill, chopping it with her own hands, inspire. to warm her mother's cottage. By this Some time between the close of the course of discipline, Ann acquired a hard revolutionary war and the commencement ness of muscle, a strength of purpose, of the nineteenth century, Mr. Raymond, and a power of endurance which never with some half a dozen children, immigrated left her through a long life.

to “the new country," some fifty miles When young, Raymond was united in west of the Hudson, in the State of Newholy matrimony to Ann Taylor, at the York. The fierce Mohawks had just house of the village parson; so far as gone off to Canada, and the fairest porpecuniary interests are concerned, their tions of the glorious “lake country” were fortune was to be made “out of whole occupied as the hunting-grounds of "the cloth.” They had, indeed, an excellent six nations.” Mr. Raymond erected a log web out of which to cut a fortune, for cabin in a glen, by the side of a beautiful they were in the possession of nerves little stream of pure spring water, the

lofty forest trees waving in the breeze • The only exceptions to the literality of the over his humble dwelling. By night the tale are the names of the persons concerned, howling of the savage wolf would reverthe description of some of the localities, and berate from hill to hill, and the scream of a small draught upon the imagination for a portion of the circumstances which could not the panther would cause a quaking among be supplied by authentic informs on.

the small herds of the neighboring farms.


and power.

Hard-handed labor and strict economy dull nor slow to judge of the opinions supplied the necessities of the little group, which some entertained of his religious which continued to enlarge until it reached pretensions. At length the precautions the goodly number of a dozen, save one. and reserve which, however well meant, In the mean time the first of a new race were doubtless premature and improper, of missionaries penetrated these interior and seemed to him to indicate a want of consecluded regions, and Mr. and Mrs. Ray- fidence in his religious character, and mond and two daughters became subjects seemed to chill the ardor of his feelings. of a great moral change. This constituted Finally he lost his confidence, and began the commencement of the religious era to mingle with frivolous and irreligious of this family. Mr. Raymond's humble company. dwelling was thenceforward a sort of Time wrought various changes in the Bethel, or house of God. Here the Raymond family: death seized some of the weary itinerant often found a resting place, most lovely of the circle, and others were and here was often heard the voice of settled in life and located at different points. prayer and praise, and here the people Harry was now the oldest son who rewere often collected together to hear the mained; and he, in the natural course of word of life dispensed in great simplicity things, began to be thrown into business

associations, which were by no means The Raymond family finally acquired a favorable to the pious and sober habits character, which, however really enviable which characterized the family. He was it was, nevertheless subjected the younger what in common parlance would be called members to much small persecution from “ a good fellow.” He was never out of their young companions. The family altar humor, never in a hurry, always ready to was ever kept up, and the morning and try his hand in a rivalry with the strongest evening sacrifice was a thing of course. and best who could be produced. WithPuritanical strictness was enforced upon al, he was a musician, and performed well all, and no immorality suffered to pass upon several instruments, and was, of without a fearful religious reckoning course, an object of interest and attention Religious things and religious people were at military parades and other public never made matters of jest.

gatherings. Withal, religion was here invested with Now it was that Harry Raymond began charms, and not made inconsistent with to fall under influences of a most deleterious good cheer and innocent amusements. character. The drinking habits of many Mr. Raymond had a generous soul within of the circles with which he mingled, him, and a natural mirthfulness which ren gradually wore upon his moral convicdered him an exceedingly agreeable com- tions, and upon his resolution to abstain, panion to the young, and made him the life until he could take " a social glass” and of his large family circle. He was a fine become merry with those who were under singer, and performed well upon the flute ; the unholy excitement of the intoxicating and after the evenings were spent in the bowl. The vigilant eye of true friendship cultivation of sacred music, which was looked with deep concern upon the perils always followed by prayer, they all retired to which poor Harry was now exposed, to rest in a delightful state of mind, fully and of which he seemed not at all aware. appreciating the bliss of true domestic But occasions of temptation were not union and sympathy sanctified by a vital | frequent, and the general course of things Christianity.

was not materially varied for several Henry was one of the you er sons, years, and no very threatening events arand when a small lad became the subject rived, until he was united in marriage to of religious influence, and gave good pro- Harriet Brenen, an interesting girl of mise of a life of usefulness. All the fourteen. elder brothers and sisters were now mem Mr. Raymond was now becoming somebers of the same Church, and great con what advanced in years, and naturally cern was felt lest the childish heart of wished to give up the burdens of business. little Harry should be turned back again He had possessed himself of a small farm, to the vanities of the world. Harry was of which his son Harry now took the good-humored and playful, and, withal, charge. Young Mrs. Raymond became unsuspecting and heedless. He was not an inmate of the family, and soon imbibed

the religious spirit which stih prevailed torted promises of amendment, which were among the remaining members of the kept for a time, longer or shorter accordfamily circle, which had now been exten- ing to circumstances, but were finally sively broken up. She found in old Mrs. broken. Raymond a mother indeed-one who not The terrible, the astounding facts were only entered into all her sympathies, under brought to the knowledge of brothers and the heavy and unexpected domestic trials sisters abroad, and a sense of deep mortiwhich will soon be noticed, but who could fication, as well as a feeling of heartgive her spiritual instructions and con- breaking sorrow, passed through the entire solation, as occasion required.

family circle. Family pride was wounded, The practice of “ taking a little ” of the and, in some instances, some little indigmaddening draught increased upon Henry, nation for the moment was indulged. Why until he occasionally became disguised, is it that our lovely circle must be disand was irregular in his return from the graced with one recreant member, and one neighboring villages, to which he now who possesses so many excellent natural made frequent visits under the pretexts of qualities, and for whom so much has been business. The terrible and long-expected done by the providence of God, by religion, event finally transpired. At a late hour by friends ? was often asked. But the Harry drove up and succeeded in getting matter finally resolved itself into a reinto the house. His horses had been ligious question, and resort was had to overdriven and neglected, and he was prayer and earnest personal appeal. All stupefied with drink and benumbed with prayed to the God who has the hearts of cold. There were two individuals, who all men in his hands for help in the great had occupied each a corner by the fire, emergency, while wife, father, mother, in mute sorrow and breathless suspense, brothers, and sisters, in turn, exhorted and while the teapot sat upon the embers and warned Henry, in the most affectionate

table was spread with what was neces- and melting strains. sary to supply the cravings of hunger. About this time he received a letter These two-the wife and the mother- from James, which concluded in this were the first to give the needed help to wise :—“And now, my dear Henry, I pray the nearly helpless object of many hours you to hear me willingly for a moment, in of indescribable solicitude. When Harry a matter which presses more heavily upon had been conducted to his bed, with many my heart, and is of more solemn interest expressions of kindness and sympathy, to you than anything beside. You will his two guardian angels retired—not to anticipate the subject-it is your course sleep, but to have their imagination haunt- of life. I trust you have not forgotten ed, during the remaining hours of the that you have a wife, parents, brothers night, by the repetition of the scene which and sisters, who naturally care for you, and had passed before them.

That was a feel a deep interest in what concerns your night of anguish, of tears, and of prayers, honor and happiness. Nor can you have which can only be appreciated by the altogether forgotten that you have a soul Father of mercies, who fathoms the which will live when the world, and all depths of human sorrow and counts the within it, shall be consumed. But is your sighs of his children.

conduct consistent with anything like a The day which succeeded was a gloomy rational conviction of these facts? Are one. A few words of most significant you not breaking the hearts of the wife of rebuke from the wife and the mother, and your youth and the mother who bore you? the down-cast countenance and sad pen- Are you not mortifying and grieving all siveness of old Mr. Raymond, which al- of us to death? More, are you not hastenways expressed unutterable things, were ing to a premature and a dishonorable met by a confused expression of the coun grave, and to an awful account after death? tenance, and a vague glancing of the eye o, my dear brother, how can we give you in different directions, but with no angry up! Have mercy upon us—have some words. It is enough-indeed too much- pity upon yourself—and break off your abmuch more than I could wish—to say, that surd and ruinous course—and turn about, the same scene, with slight variations of while you may, and live. Could I take circumstances, was occasionally repeated. you in my arms this moment, I would Admonitions and tender expostulations ex- / bathe your brow with my tears, and would,

Vol. V.-4

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