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The Rev. Peter Akers, D. D., has completed a authoress, be one of the most extraordinary work on Scripture Chronology, which is about works in existence. The newspaper proprietors to be published by Swormstedt & Poe, Cincin esteem its popularity so highly, that they have nati. It will make an octavo volume, and is paid Madame Sand $20,000 for the copyright. said by those who have examined the manuscript to throw some new light on the import- immense reduction has been made in the price
Price of Books among the Ancients.—What an ant subject of which it treats. Dr. Akers con
of books by the invention of the art of printing! tends, with some European critics, at the
It is recorded of Plato, that although his paterChristian Sunday is the day of the original Sab
nal inheritance was small, he bought three bath. His work has employed his studies for
books of Philolaus the Pythagorean for ten years.
thousand denarii, nearly $1500. We are also We have lately referred to the Educational informed that Aristotle bought a few books beExhibition, got up in England, under the au longing to Speucippus, the philosopher, for three spices of Prince Albert. It was attended with Attic talents, a sum equivalent to about $2800. a course of lectures, among which was an extra St. Jerome also ruined himself by purchasing ordinary one by Cardinal Wiseman, on “ The the works of Origen. Home Education of the Poor.” Taking his illus
Literary Labor.—The American author, Altration from France, he gave an account of the
cott, has written one hundred volumes, Wesley recent proceedings of the government of France
wrote thirty octavo volumes, Baxter wrote in reference to the popular literature of that
several hundred volumes, and Lopez de Vega, country. He explained (according to the re
the Spanish poet, published twenty-one million porter of the T'imes) how it had been carried on
three hundred thousand lines, which are equal for three hundred years by colportage-how an
to more than two thousand six hundred and sixty nually from eight to nine million volumes, va
volumes as large as Milton's Paradise Lost! Lorying in price from one cent to twenty, had been thus distributed—how little, in the lapse pez de Vega was the most voluminous of writers.
But it is not the quantity so much as the qualof ages, this literature had changed or been improved—and how, at length, the government ity of literary matter that insures immortality;
for long after the millions of Lopez de Vega's of the present emperor had resolved to inquire into the character of the works thus circulated,
lines are buried in oblivion, the few simple with the view of prohibiting such as it con
verses of Gray's Elegy will live to delight man
kind. sidered noxious or foolish. On the 30th of November, 1852, a commission had been ap
Wisconsin has a school fund of one million pointed, and, in consequence, the colporteur was
dollars, and lands which, when sold, will increase required to have a stamp of permission on every
it to five million dollars. There are three thoubook that he sold. The publishers had also
sand school districts in the state ; one hundred been invited to send in their publications to be and five thousand and eighty-two dollars were examined, and approved or rejected. The num expended last year for teachers' wages. During ber of works in consequence submitted had been 1853, the number of children in the state be seven thousand five hundred ; and of them tween the ages of five and twenty years, was three-fourths had been refused permission to
one hundred and thirty-five thousand five hunbe put in circulation. He asked the meeting dred, of whom one hundred and eight thousand to imagine, with such a result, the state of the three hundred, or nearly four-fifths, attended literature infecting every cottage in France, not school. Five years ago, of seventy thousand five for five, ten, or twenty, but for the last three hundred and sixty-seven children, only thirtyhundred years. Many of these books were two thousand one hundred and seventy-four, or filled with superstitions, and the exploded fal less than one-half, attended school. lacies of astrology were still preserved in them
Alabama.—The legislature of this state has as scientific truths. A great void had been recently passed an act “to establish and maincreated by the withdrawal of these works,-and
tain a system of free public schools,” and has the question had arisen, how that was to be appropriated two hundred and forty thousand filled up? The government had at first trusted dollars annually for that purpose. to the exigency of the demand for a supply; and subsequently, finding that it did not come,
Texas has established a permanent school had entertained the proposition of instigating fund of two million of dollars. men of real genius to prepare works on history, There are in the United States about sixty on agriculture, on elementary chemistry, and on thousand common schools, which are supported other suitable subjects; but it had been con at an annual expense of nearly six million dolsidered dangerous thus to enter on a competition lars; more than half of which is expended by with the ordinary book trade, and the matter the states of New York and Massachusetts. was still under consideration. This disclosure of the extent of colportage in France is quite
By a recent vote of the House of Commons,
two hundred and fifty-one to one hundred and surprising. Our own country is fast imitating sixty-one, Dissenters are admitted to study at the example.
the University of Oxford. The motion was Madame George Sand's “ History of her Life” | merely to the effect that no oaths or subscripis about to be published in one of the principal tions be necessary, except the oath of allegiance, Paris newspapers. It is to fill altogether five to any person matriculated at the University. volumes. It is of course expected with the The difficulties in the way of graduating, howliveliest interest, and if it imitate the frank
ever, are not yet entirely removed, as the oaths ness of Rousseau's “Confessions,” will, from and subscriptions to the thirty-nine articles are the genius and the adventurous career of the not dispensed with.
Irts and Sciences.
Great Invention in Printing - The Telegraph--Erics. | far as Alexandria, in order from that point to
son's Caloric Engine Flowers -- Now Reaping reach India and Australia ; and thus shall Machine-Didron-Artificial Quinine.
Shakspeare's Ariel fulfill his promised feats. One of the most important announcements
While announcing these important movesince our last bulletin of scientific news, is
ments onward, we regret to say that the sanfrom Paris. It promises a revolution in print- guine announcements of the New-York press reing. This marvelous discovery, as our European papers pronounce it, is nothing less than specting Mr. Ericsson's caloric engine have failed. the power of producing, instantaneously, copies is to be taken out of the ship bearing his name,
The apparatus has been finally abandoned, and of engravings, lithographs, and printed pages, steam-boilers being substituted. From the bewith such minute exactitude that the most
ginning this result has been foreseen by pracsearching investigation, even by a microscope, tical and scientific men, notwithstanding the cannot distinguish them from the originals. alleged complete success of the experiment. The modus operandi is not described, and is, in fact, it is stated, kept a profound secret by the Our transatlantic papers report an interestinventor, who is a M. Boyer, of Nismes; but it ing discovery--interesting not only to our fair seems to resemble the operation of lithography. readers, but to men of science-by a distinguishAs a specimen of his art, M. Boyer is represented ed artiste in flower-painting, Madame Leprince de to have produced, in less than a quarter of an Beaufort, for preserving flowers. By ber art, hour, a reproduction of a sheet containing, first, not only flowers, but trees, can be embalmed; a page of a Latin book, published in 1625; the tree remains always green, and the flower second, a design from the “* Illustrated London retains its color and brilliancy: the process is News," of April, 1854; third, a page from a re instantaneous. Thanks to this discovery, the cently printed biography ; fourth, a page of a ladies can always have real flowers for their book printed in 1503 ; fifth, an engraving of the bonnets and coiffeurs, and also for the vases in façade of a palace; sixth, a specimen of gothic their appartements ; but what will become of the characters. All these were, it is alleged, imi- poor artistes in artificial flowers ? tated with such extraordinary minuteness, that
It is claimed, with a great flourish of trumneither the eye nor the microscope could detect pets, that a Frenchman has recently succeeded the difference of a letter, a line, or a spot, be- in perfecting what the English and Americans tween them and the originals. A great number
have so long sought to perfect, and failedof copies can, we are told, be struck off from reaping-machine. In two hours and a quarter the stone employed, and the expense is alleged this machine, it is said, cut two acres of wheat, to be extremely small, fifty per cent. at least for
with only one horse and three servants; it did printed works, and more for engravings. If
not leave a straw behind ; it gathered them all there be no exaggeration in what is stated, in bundles, and left them on the ground ready M. Boyer's discovery will effect an extraordinary
to be tied. With a relay horse they can cut revolution in the printing and engraving pro
ten acres per day-the work of ten cradlers and fessions : with it neither print nor book can
a multitude of reapers ! It is also said that possibly be protected from piracy. It is not
eight other reapers of French invention, and a denied that he has already produced fac-similes quantity of thrashers, will figure at the Paris of rare old engravings and books.
Exhibition in competition with those which may We have heretofore referred to the prospect be brought from abroad. Harvest hands were of a submarine telegraph from this country to
scarce, this year, in France, on account of the Europe. This great instrument is to be still
extensive recruitments for the war, and the further extended in the old world. It has lately preparations for war, and an impetus has there been announced in one of the leading French fore been given to labor-saving inventions, which papers, that after a serious study of the matter, it is to be hoped will not be subject to reaction. a convention, in which the different powers in
M. Didron, the author of the “ Iconographie terested have taken part, has been concluded Chrétienne," has been authorized by the French for the establishment of an electrical communi- Minister of Public Instruction to proceed to cation which will unite the European continent with Algeria by crossing the islands of Corsica Italy, in order to study the ancient Christian
monuments of that country which have relation and Sardinia. The submarine telegraph from England to France is to be continued by land, Ravenna, Venice, and Milan. Two draughts
to his subject. He is to visit Rome, Florence, and after crossing Nice and Genoa, will reach
men have been appointed to accompany him. Spezzia, at the bottom of the gulf of that name. The new line will start from that point, and Two manufacturing chemists have presented after crossing the island of Corsica, will pass to the French Academy of Science sealed papers, by Sardinia to the coast of Algeria, near Bona. each containing a specimen of artificial quinine, From that place, if it be thought necessary, it which they had made by different processes. will be continued as far as the Regency of Tunis. The pathological qualities of the substance are The works necessary for the accomplishment of to be tested, and if they are found satisiactory, the first part of this plan will be completed in the discovery is certainly important. It will two years from the date of the promulgation of obviate the necessity of importing the bark of the law. At that time the line will be prolonged the cinchona-trees, from which alone has the by the shore of the Mediterranean in Africa as great tonic, thus far, been extracted.
KING, THE SCULPTOR.
(Rev. H. W. Bellows,) " the pro- Providence, which keeps his own gifts half found design entertained by Providence, hidden, half revealed, that they may be of awakening and educating man's soul received with the best advantage of his through the necessity under which he creatures, while he strictly subordinates lies of subduing and regulating the ma- the natural world to the spiritual discipline terial world.” And in this adaptation of and moral victory of his rational offspring." the outer world to the inner and higher The same divine mind has also provided wants of man, he well remarks, “we the proper stimulants for the culture of behold the grandest and most glorious the imagination and the taste. As al: proof of the being of that God, that won the concealed capabilities of the natural derful designer, whose plan, as it opens, world to add to the comforts of the race shows an infinite forecast-and of the are so many heavenly invitations and even
commands to discover and subjugate them author of the “ Manual of the Fine Arts," -the cloudy steam, the fugitive electricity, “will not create moral principles in the the expansive gas, new esculents, new mind where they do not exist, it is mainmedicinal elements—so the ductile metal, tained that there is an affinity between the the finely veined wood, and the yielding refinements of taste and the virtues of the marble are all as direct intimations of the soul; between the beautiful and the good. divine will and purpose. In the mind God Heaven, the peculiar abode of holiness, is has implanted the restless urgency to represented as a place of transcendent realize, in beautiful forms, the spiritual beauty and glory. And granting that the ideas that rise into life within its pregnant fine arts are utterly powerless to implant bosom-a craving more powerful than the pure principles, still, if not abused, they cry for bread, and even conquering the will foster and expand them, and imbue strong natural instinct for rest and for them with a fine sensibility.”
The same life. And he has himself provided the un author remarks with much propriety : “A approachable paradigms, which ever in- cultivation of the taste, by a proper degree spire and excite the human powers to their of attention to literature and the fine arts, utmost ability. A beckoning hand, and a elevates the mind above trivial cares and spiritual voice whispering excelsior, ever conventional jealousies, giving it a vigorous invite the reverent imagination to a higher independence, and a fund of inexhaustible conception, and the cunning fingers to a resources within itself.” The increase of more delicate execution. The world is material wealth, with us, exhibits itself too hung with pictures, adorned with statuary, often in the gratification of appetite or of and piled up in sublime forms of architec- the lower affections in the over-luxuriousture. The great Sovereign of the universe ness of our dwellings and their furniture, is evidently worshiped and glorified as and in those forms of domestic art that truly in an effort to develop and cultivate strike the sight with the most glaring the imagination, as in the toils of daily effect—in plate and jewelry. “I cannot labor and the investigations of science; but think,” says Ruskin,“ that part of the and the work may be as devout. Sir God wealth which now lies buried in these frey Kneller was accustomed to say :-- doubtful luxuries, might most wisely and “When I paint, I consider it as one way, kindly be thrown into a form which would at least, of offering devotions to my Ma- give perpetual pleasure, not to its posker, by exercising the talent his goodness sessor only, but to thousands besides, and has graciously blessed me with ;” and neither tempt the unprincipled, nor inFrancis I., when his noblemen expressed flame the envious, nor mortify the poor ; their surprise at his grief upon the death while, supposing that your own dignity of Leonardo da Vinci, exclaimed: “I ca was dear to you, this, you may rely make a nobleman ; but God Almighty upon it, would be more impressed upon alone can make an artist.” Indeed, the others by the nobleness of your house inspiration to accomplish these noble and walls than by the glistening of your sidebeautiful results is ascribed in Holy Writ boards." to the Almighty : “ Then wrought every No form of art is better adapted to wise-hearted man in whom the Lord put accomplish these high purposes than wisdom and understanding, to know how sculpture. Ruskin is of the opinion that to work all manner of work for the service there is less liability of a perverted taste of the sanctuary ;” and in the disclosures in this form of art than in painting. “You of the “new heavens” and “ new earth,” are aware,” he says in his interesting the adornments of art are the chosen lectures, “ that the possibilities of error in symbols of its glory : “ Behold I will lay sculpture are much less than in painting; thy stones with fair colors and thy foun- it is altogether an easier and simpler art, dations with sapphires, and I will make thy invariably attaining perfection long before windows of agates, and thy gates of car- painting, in the progress of a national buncles, and all thy borders of pleasant mind.” Our young country has presented stones.”
its full share of claimants to the honors The effect of a true and pure work of of this noble art, and among the living and art upon the mind of the beholder can but the dead can point, with national pride, to be wholesome and ennobling. “ Though names that the world will not readily let the cultivation of the taste," says the die. The lamented Horatio Greenough
-a Boston boy-whose valuable life was of De Witt Clinton, in bronze, was a great finally fretted out, in the prime of his achievement of art; Thomas Ball, of years, by the vexatious delays of our Charleston, whose head of Webster has government in sending for the group of been much admired; Clark Mills, whose statuary executed by him in Italy, which equestrian statue of Jackson adorns the had been ordered, under the administration National Capitol ; and Miss Hosmer, the of Mr. Van Buren, to embellish the pedi- latest, and in some respects most remarkment of the eastern portico of the capitol able cultivator of the art of sculpture-a at Washington, had lived long enough to young lady of Watertown, Mass., whose secure a European reputation. To him “ Hesper” is considered an extraordinary belongs the honor of the severe and sub- production, affording an eloquent prophecy lime design of the monument upon Bunker of fame. Hill. His younger brother, Richard John C. King, whose name stands at Greenough, is an emulator of his genius, the head of this sketch, is intimately conand is rising to fame in the same province nected, in his early artistic history and of art. Eve, the Greek Slave, and the fortunes, with his warm friend and comNeapolitan Fisher Boy have rendered the panion, Hiram Powers. Mr. King is a name of Hiram Powers immortal—a New- native of Scotland, having been born in Englander by birth, but early transplanted the town of Kilwinning, Ayrshire, on the to Ohio, and claimed by Cincinnati as one 16th of October, 1806. His later studies of her noblest sons. The majestic bronze and labors were foretold by his early statue by Ball Hughes of Dr. Bowditch, tastes and passion for painting. At five in Mt. Auburn, and other equal works, years of age, he began with chalk sketches, have placed the author's name among the and the gift of his first box of water colors, conspicuous sculptors of the day. Henry he says, made him “ happier then, than a Dexter, of New-York, became a painter, fortune could make me now.” He pracby the irresistible force of genius, and a ticed as an amateur artist, without insculptor almost involuntarily. About the struction, until the age of manhood. He time of his coming to Boston, Greenough was persuaded to learn the business of his was leaving the country for Italy, and a father, (a machinist,) that the aid of his friend of the young painter advised him to services might be secured to the family. obtain the molding clay left behind in the In 1829, Mr. King, having become restsculptor's rooms, as modeling might helpless at home, and having heard glowing him in acquiring a knowledge of forms. accounts of the openings for business in The suggestion was followed, and the clay America, embarked for New-Orleans, obtained. “I mixed it with water," he where he arrived in due season, and soon says, “and prepared a mass of it in the after sailed for Cincinnati. His time was way I supposed it was to be used. My occupied in various forms of his trade until hands were in the clay when Mr. White, 1836, when, in the financial crisis of the painter, came in. I requested him to that memorable period, all manufacturing let me make his face in the mud. He business was paralyzed. In 1832, while readily assented. In about half an hour, residing in Cincinnati, he became acwith only my fingers for instruments, I quainted with Hiram Powers, and a warm astonished my sitter, and almost frightened and lasting friendship was the result. myself. This was my first attempt at “In 1834,” writes Mr. King, in his sketch modeling." His marble “ Binney Child” of his life prepared for Mrs. Lee,“ a young in Mt. Auburn will not soon leave the friend of Mr. Powers died of cholera. memory of the observer.
Clevenger, and Powers was applied to, to model a bust Crawford, the latter of whom conceived of him from memory. I had an invitation and chiseled the striking monumental to look at it when it was finished. This representation of the death of Dr. Amos was the first model in clay I had ever Binney, in Mt. Auburn, have both justified seen, and it possessed great interest for by ample results their right to a position me. After examining it carefully, and in the “goodlie” company of sculptors. making remarks on the parts that pleased And then there is Stevenson, who ex- me most, Powers came directly in front ecuted the “Wounded Indian ;” Bracket, of me, threw his hands behind his back, the sculptor of the “Shipwrecked Mother looked at me with his large, serious eyes, and Child;" Brown, whose colossal statue as if he saw through to the back of my