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from Old England, we performed the same in six weeks and three days."

The governor went aboard ship to meet them, and himself and family were lodged in his house, which he describes as fair and newly built. Not one of the pilgrim houses is left standing now. The Allyn House, a cut of which we here give, is a specimen of the old style, but more spacious perhaps than that in which Higginson was lodged by the

governor. they fringe the grassy covering now of We can imagine psalms and thanksmany a trusting and demure maiden, who givings going up from beneath that roof believed in their marvelous virtues. And for preservation from “maledictions" and who shall say but that faith lends to its the divers perils of the sea, and for the object something of the quality with which delight which they had received in beholdit believes it to be already endowed. ing the wonders of the Lord in the deep,

For myself, it seems to me that we are which our author quaintly says, more indebted to the Puritans for the who dare not go to their town's end, shall beautiful examples of faith and trust be never have the honor to see.” queathed to us, than for their noble inde Of their habits during the voyage, he pendence and resistance of oppression. says: “ That they constantly served God, There was no questioning about chance, morning and evening, by reading and exand fate, and free-will—they knew no will pounding the Scripture—by singing and but God's will; and under the severest af- prayer—and the Sabbath was solemnly flictions still prayed—“Thy will be done!" kept by adding to the former preaching

Speaking of a little daughter whom he twice and catechizing.” And in great had lost at sea, Mr. Higginson says : need they kept solemn fasts with gracious

“So it was God's will the child died about effect—and he desires all to take notice five of the clock at night, being the first of our that fasting and prayer are as “prevailship that was buried in the bowels of the great able” by sea as by land. The ship-master Atlantic sea."

and his company, we are told, “ set their Writing of a great storm which befell watches with singing, and prayer that was them shortly after the burial, he says, with not read in a book.” a simplicity which begets in us confidence Higginson but exemplifies the general in all his curious narrations, “ This day spirit of trust, of piety, of cheerfulness. Mr. Goff's great dog fell overboard, and “ Experience doth manifest,” he says, could not be recovered."

" that there is hardly a more healthful As they came near the shore, (I speak place to be found in the world that agreeth now of the emigrants of 1630,) abundance better with our English bodies.” For of yellow flowers, which they supposed to himself, he says: “Whereas I did formerhave come from the low meadows, floated ly require such drink as was both strong out to meet them, which made them the and stale, now I can, and oftentimes do, more anxious to see the New England drink New-England water very well." paradise.

Throughout all the chronicles kept by “Through God's blessing," he says, the settlers of Massachusetts Bay, we find our passage was short and speedy ; for the same cheerful piety manifested as has whereas we had a thousand leagues to sail already been exhibited in Master Higgin

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son's report. No lamentings anywhere oring of their king and country, the adfor the blessings they had foregone, but a vancement of the Christian faith, and the constant setting forth of those that were glory of God. This voluntary agreement left.

has been defined by some American writers, William Wood, in his description of “ the birth of popular constitutional libMassachusetts, says: “In an ill sheep erty;" and this has undoubtedly proved the year, I have known mutton as dear in Old fruit of the tree they planted, although England, and dearer than goat's flesh is they had no idea of the gigantic growth in New-England; which is altogether as it was destined to, or of its fruit. good, if fancy be set aside.”

As soon as anchor was cast, parties Among their other afflictions came pes- went ashore to fetch wood and water, tilence, insomuch that there was scarcely and a shallop was fitted for the exploring a house where there was not one dead ; of the coast, and selecting a suitable place “ but they who survived were not dis- for settlement. This plan was shortly recouraged, but bore God's corrections with linquished, in consequence of the shallop humility,” remembering always that he proving unworthy ; and a party, under the had power to raise them up, as well as leadership of Captain Miles Standish, volcast them down.

unteered to make an exploration on foot. Of one it is said, “ She was a godly This was esteemed a service of great peril, virgin, making a comfortable end ;” and and rather permitted, we are informed, that the like loss of her had not been sus than approved. At length, however, sixtained ; and it is added, without murmur teen men, armed with musket, sword, and or complaint, “she deserves to be remem corslet, were put ashore. bered."

They spent the first day in tracking In“ There are graves in other places,” dians, but were overtaken by night without writes one,

as well as with us.” Of the having encountered any; and kindling a death of Robert Welden,“ a hopeful young fire, appointed sentinels, and lay down to gentleman,” who had just been chosen sleep. The following day they renewed captain of a hundred foot, the chronicle the tracking, but became entangled in says: “he was buried as a soldier, with thickets, by reason of which their very three vollies of shot ;" and in the next armor is said to have been literally torn to sentence a thanksgiving is recorded. On pieces. every page of their records our pusilla The annexed cut represents the armor nimity is shamed by their great trust of the period, though it is probable our and steady perseverance—remembering pilgrims had only a corselet and headalways the primary object of their pilgrim- piece. age, they paused only to bury their dead, never to mourn.

But to return to the Pilgrims of 1620, for I have been led away from them by the interest attaching to the narratives of their followers.

Early in the morning of the 9th of November, after the sufferings of a crowded passage of sixty-four days, these Pilgrims obtained their first view of the coast of America. Their rejoicing and praising of God we must leave to be imagined. Wonderfully refreshing must have been the sight of the sand-hills covered with scrubby woods and sloping toward the sea, leafless and snow-covered as they were. After being driven about by contrary winds and endangered by shoals, they were anchored safely in Cape Cod harbor.

Before making land, however, they had covenanted and combined themselves together into a civil body-politic for the hon




These explorers appear to have found than the shore. Heavy snow and rain nothing more worthy of note than some came on, and with the prospect all obIndian traps, in one of which Captain scured, "the gale increased, the sea got Standish was caught accidentally, the site up, the rudder snapped," and a poor atof a house, an old ship's kettle, and a tempt at steering was made with a couple basket of Indian corn, which they carried of oars, the waves threatening to swamp away, intending to reimburse the owners; them, and the light of a winter day fading also, they crossed some graves. Wearily from a perilous shore-surely they needed they drew toward the seashore, and were then their great trust. The pilot having glad to have their signal answered from called them to be of good cheer, for he the ship.

beheld the harbor, all sail was strained to Subsequently, a larger party went out get in, when the mast snapped in three in the boat, which, owing to boisterous places, and the pilot exclaimed, “The winds, could not keep the sea, and the Lord be merciful! my eyes never saw this men were forced to wade ashore through place before.” Breakers were just before water above their knees, and after toil- them, but with wonderful presence of mind some marching to encamp for the night the shallop was got about and carried into in the open air, and exposed to a fall of the harbor with flood tide. Safe from the snow, so that some who afterward died danger of the sea, night came down upon were supposed to have there “taken the them, wet, hungry, almost frozen. Fear original of their deaths.” The following of the savages kept them for some time day the explorations were renewed, the in the boat, but so near perishing were snow through which they waded, and the they with cold that a few went ashore, wintry woods, making the scene doubly and having kindled a fire, were joined by desolate. Their only good fortune seems the rest. The place proved to be an unto have been the finding of a supply of inhabited island, and having looked about

By the third day several were too they resolved to pass the day there, dr sick to proceed further, and were accord their baggage, and refix their muskets. ingly sent back; and shortly the whole The next day was Sunday, and sore party became worn out with the hard toil pressed as they were to join their companand discouragement, when ten of the ions, they remained and observed it with staunchest volunteered to proceed alone ; customary solemnity. Monday, sounding among these were Standish, Carver, Brad- the harbor, they found it eligible for shipford, and Winslow. The cold was intense, ping, and determined to explore the shores and from their great suffering two of the further, and making land, stepped on the ten were taken ill; the sleet froze over rock which has since acquired such cethem, and, says the chronicle, they were lebrity. Here their researches ended, as speedily cased all over in coats of iron. has been already recorded, and, weighing

They met traces of Indians, but en- anchor, they carried back the good news countered none. One night a hideous to their friends. cry surprised them, and the sentinel cried During their exploration, Mistress White “ To arms!" but having fired off a couple gave birth to a son, whom she called Pereof muskets, nothing more was heard, and grine—the first child born in the colonythe shrieks were supposed to have been and Dorothy, the wife of Bradford, was wild beasts. This supposition proved drowned. untrue, for on the morrow, having prayed, On the 17th of December, the Mayand being about to breakfast, a repetition Flower set sail from Cape Cod Harbor, of the yell burst upon them, followed by and the next day anchored in Plymouth a storm of arrows. Standish was the Bay, and having called on God for direcfirst to fire, and his companions quickly tion, went ashore. followed with a general discharge of mus- The spot where they resolved to settle ketry. The sachem stood bravely, but was a ridge of high ground which had was at length overcome, and wounded | been cleared and planted with corn some fled back into the woods. “ The First years before. The place, we are told, Encounter” the place of this skirmish is abounded with “delicate springs” of water, called.

and under the hillside ran “a very sweet They now betook themselves to the brook.” boat, but the sea proved more inhospitable A rude shelter was erected, where the

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party set themselves down and began to land only to learn that here there is no build houses, and here the town of Ply- rest for us, and no abiding place. mouth now stands. The Indian name was When the spring came, one half the Accomack. A indicates Plymouth vil- little band lay asleep on the cliff overlage, B the Town Brook, C Billington Sea, hanging the rock where they had so lately D Captain's Hill, Duxbury; E Clark's landed—side by side they were laid, as Island, F Saquish Head, G Jones' River. they stood in life ; and their surviving

“ The Common House," as the first friends, so far from making tombs, or habitation was called, was but twenty planting flowers, leveled the sacred earth, feet square, and in it men, women, and and planted corn, in order to conceal their children, sick and well, corn, goods and great loss from the Indians, lest, tempted all, were huddled together, until new by their weakness, they might fall upon houses could be built, which was a hard and destroy the little handful of survivors and slow work, so often was it interrupted which they were become. by alarms of the Indians, by the severity When the spring came roand, and the of the weather, and by sickness.

flowers began to appear, a solitary Indian, Two of their number soon had the mis- of noble and fearless carriage, made his fortune to lose themselves in the woods, appearance one “fair warm” day, and which caused the most painful apprehen- using all the English he knew, bade the sions to the rest, and as may be supposed pilgrims welcome. He proved communiwas anything but agreeable to themselves; cative, and the settlers obtained some fear of wild beasts and Indians adding ter- valuable information from him. They ror to the bitterness of the frost and snow. entertained him as well as they could, But it pleased God, to quote their own that they might counteract the bad imwords, so to dispose that the beasts pression which the savages already had came not;" and, after great hardship and of them; and when he departed, gave him fright, they found their way back to the some little presents.

His name settlement. By the 4th of February, the Samoset, and he often returned with his Common House was as full of beds as they companions to the settlement, after his could lie, one beside another; and there, solitary adventure. He is described as a in that rude habitation, and in the strange man of able body, grave countenance, and country to which they had come, the spare of speech, and differing in attire labors of a great number were ended. from his followers only in that he wore a

Doubly sad must have been the parting chain of great white bone beads about his of those who had endured so much to- neck. “ His face was painted a sad red, gether—they had reached the promised | like murrey, and he oiled both head and

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face so that he looked greasily. All of frequent and disorderly, insomuch that it his followers painted themselves of differ was thought advisable to send an embassy ent colors, yellow, red, and black, and to the nearest chief to make arrangements some dressed in skins, and some went mutually agreeable. Winslow was apnaked.” Governor Carver is represented pointed diplomatist; and taking with him as pledging his wild visitors very cour a coat of red cotton, edged with lace, a teously in strong drinks, which they recip- present for the sachem, and accompanied rocated in more potent draughts.

by an interpreter, they set out. After a With the warm weather, preparation weary march they fell in with the chief, for the departure of the May-Flower was to whom they presented the red coat, made, and it is strange, in view of all the and whom they paid for the Indian corn hardship and suffering, and the losses of which they appropriated on a former exfriends, brothers, sisters, husbands and pedition. wives, that not one sought opportunity to The chief was so pleased with these return home, but remained, resolved at all courtesies, that he promised to comply hazards to make homes among the graves with all their requests, and distinguished of their kindred.

his guests by lodging them in the same Soon after the departure of the May- bed with himself and wife. If the PilFlower, Governor Carver, while at work in grims had always acted upon this conthe field, was taken ill, in a few hours ciliatory plan, it would have saved their became speechless, and after a few days names from centuries of reproach. died. It is said of him that his great The good ship Fortune came in Novemcare “ for the common good shortened his ber, bringing a reinforcement of over thirty days.”

settlers ; but in consequence of extravaWilliam Bradford, of whom we have gant reports about the fertility of the counpreviously spoken, was chosen his suc try, she brought no supplies of food; so

The first marriage took place the colony was reduced to short allowMay 12th, 1621, and was between Ed ance. ward Winslow and Susanna White, both It is pleasant to contemplate the friendly of whom had been recently bereaved of intercourse between the settlers and the their companions. Under ordinary cir- Indians at this period. Winslow says :cumstances, this proceeding would have

“We have found them very loving and ready been regarded as an indecency and a scan to pleasure us. We often go to them, and they dal ; but under the trying circumstances come to us; some of us have been fifty miles it seems to have been considered exem in the country with them.” plary.

They were entertained familiarly, and The first offense, as recorded in the repaid the hospitality with skins and venijournal of the governor, is that of John And it was a common picture to Billington; and was contempt of the cap see the Englishmen in corslet and buff tain's lawful command, and opprobrious sitting on the grass beside the plumed and speeches, for which he was adjudged to painted chief. We pass over the details have his neck and heels tied together;" of the first bloody encounter, quoting, simfor what length of time the journal saith ply, what Robinson, the good pastor whom not. It appears, however, that in hum- they had left behind them, said, on hearing bling himself and craving pardon he was of it. “Consider your ways, and the disforgiven. Remarkable leniency for the position of your captain, who is of warm times. The second offense was a duel temper,” he wrote-he doubted whether fought upon challenge at single combat there was not wanting that tenderness of with sword and dagger, between Edward the life of man which was meet, and addDotey and Edward Leister, servants of ed: “() how happy a thing had it been, Mr. Hopkins. What the cause of chal- | if you had converted some before you lenge was, appears not; but the parties killed any." actually sought and were both wounded, He seems to have been heartily loved for which they were adjudged to have by his people, and deserving all their love; their head and feet tied together, and so but he was too much in advance of them lie for twenty-four hours without meat or and of the age to be always appreciated. drink.

“I charge you," he said, in his last adThe visits of the savages began to be I dress to them, “that you follow me no


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