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HENRY II. OF ENGLAND.

and the treachery and ingratitude of his children. His son Richard immediately concluded an alliance with Philip Augustus; and the two young, valiant, and impetuous monarchs, united all their energies to forward the Crusade. They met with a numerous and brilliant retinue at Nonancourt in Normandy, where, in sight of their assembled chivalry, they embraced as brothers, and swore to live as friends and true allies, until a period of forty days after their return from the Holy Land. With a view of

purging their camp from the follies and vices which had proved so ruinous to preceding expeditions, they drew up a code of laws for the government of the army.

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These rules, which strictly prohibited gambling, and other vices to which the Crusaders were addicted, having been promulgated, the two monarchs marched together to Lyons, where they separated, agreeing to meet again at Messina. Philip

proceeded across the Alps to Genoa, of me?" he replied, in answer to their re where he took ship, and was conveyed to monstrances : "you gave me your prayers the place of rendezvous. Richard turned in my necessity, and I have given you in the direction of Marseilles, where he mine in yours.” The clergy understood also took ship for Messina. His impetuous the argument, and thought it the wiser disposition hurried him into many squabcourse to pay their quota of Saladin's tithe bles by the way, and his knights and folwithout further parley.

lowers, for the most part as brave and as This anecdote shows the unpopularity of the Crusade. If the clergy disliked to contribute, it is no wonder that the people felt still greater antipathy. But the chivalry of Europe was eager for the affray ; the tithe was rigorously collected; and armies from England, France, Burgundy, Italy, Flanders, and Germany, were soon in the field. The two kings who were to have led it were, however, drawn into broils by an aggression of Richard, Duke of Guienne, better known as Richard Cæur de Lion, upon the territory of the Count of Toulouse, and the proposed journey to Palestine was delayed. War continued to rage between France and England, and with so little probability of a speedy termination, that many of the nobles, bound to the Crusade, left the two monarchs to settle the differences at their leisure, and proceeded to Palestine without them.

Death at last stepped in and removed Henry II. from the hostility of his foes,

PHILIP AUGUSTUS.

foolish as himself, imitated him very zeal A violent storm dispersed his fleet, but ously in this particular. At Messina the he arrived safely at Rhodes with the prinSicilians charged the most exorbitant cipal part of his armament. Here he prices for every necessary of life. Rich- learned that three of his ships had been ard's army in vain remonstrated. From stranded on the rocky coasts of Cyprus ; words they came to blows, and, as a last and that the ruler of the island, Isaac resource, plundered the Sicilians, since Commenus, had permitted his people to they could not trade with them. Con- pillage the unfortunate crews, and had retinual battles were the consequence, in fused shelter to his betrothed bride, the one of which Lebrun, the favorite attend- Princess Berengaria, and his sister, who, ant of Richard, lost his life. The peas in one of the vessels, had been driven by antry from far and near came flocking to stress of weather into the port of Limisso. the aid of the townspeople, and the battle The fiery monarch swore to be revenged, soon became general. Richard, irritated and, collecting all his vessels, sailed back at the loss of his favorite, and incited by to Limisso. Isaac Commenus refused to report that Tancred, the king of Sicily, apologize or explain ; and Richard, in no was fighting at the head of his own people, mood to be trifled with, landed on the joined the mêlée with his boldest knights, island, routed with great loss the forces and, beating back the Sicilians, attacked sent to oppose him, and laid the whole the city sword in hand, stormed the battle country under contribution. ments, tore down the flag of Sicily, and On his arrival at Acre he found the whole planted his own in its stead. This col- of the chivalry of Europe there before lision gave great offense to the king of him. Guy of Lusignan, the king of JeruFrance, who became from that time jealous salem, had long before collected the bold of Richard, and apprehensive that his de- Knights of the Temple, the Hospital, and sign was not so much to reëstablish the St. John, and had laid siege to Acre, Christian kingdom of Jerusalem, as to which was resolutely defended by the Sulmake conquests for himself. He, how- tan Saladin, with an army magnificent ever, exerted his influence to restore peace both for its numbers and its discipline. For between the English and Sicilians, and nearly two years the Crusades had pushed shortly afterward set sail for Acre, with the siege, and made efforts almost superdistrust of his ally germinating in his human to dislodge the enemy. Various heart.

battles had taken place in the open fields Richard remained behind for some weeks with no decisive advantage to either party, in a state of inactivity quite unaccountable and Guy of Lusignan had begun to despair in one of his temperament. He appears of taking that strong position without aid to have had no more squabbles with the from Europe. His joy was extreme on Sicilians, but to have lived an easy, luxu- the arrival of Philip with all his chivalry, rious life, forgetting, in the lap of pleasure, and he only awaited the coming of Ceur the objects for which he had quitted his de Lion to make one last decisive attack own dominions and the dangerous laxity upon the town. When the fleet of Enhe was introducing into his army. The gland was first seen approaching the shores superstition of his soldiers recalled him at of Syria, a universal shout arose from the length to a sense of his duty : a comet Christian camp; and when Richard landed was seen for several successive nights, with his train, one louder still pierced to which was thought to menace them with the very mountains of the south, where the vengeance of Heaven for their delay. Saladin lay with all his army. Shooting stars gave them similar warning ; It may be remarked as characteristic and a fanatic, of the name of Joachim, of this Crusade, that the Christians and with his drawn sword in his hand, and his the Moslems no longer looked upon each long hair streaming wildly over his shoul- other as barbarians, to whom mercy was a ders, went through the camp, howling all crime. Each host entertained the highest night long, and predicting plague, famine, admiration for the bravery and magnaand every other calamity if they did not nimity of the other, and, in their occaset out immediately. Richard did not sional truces, met upon the most friendly deem it prudent to neglect the intimations; terms. The Moslem warriors were full and, after doing humble penance for his of courtesy to the Christian knights, and remissness, he set sail for Acre.

had no other regret than to think that

such fine fellows were not Mohammedans. to restore their courage. He refused, The Christians, with a feeling precisely therefore, to deliver it up, or to accede to similar, extolled to the skies the nobleness any of the conditions; and Richard, as of the Saracens, and sighed to think that he had previously threatened, barbarously such generosity and valor should be sul- ordered all the Saracen prisoners in his lied by disbelief in the gospel of Jesus. power to be put to death. But when the strife began, all these feel- The possession of the city only caused ings disappeared, and the struggle became new and unhappy dissensions between the mortal.

Christian leaders. The Archduke of AusThe jealousy excited in the mind of tria unjustifiably hoisted his flag on one Philip by the events of Messina still rank- of the towers of Acre, which Richard no led, and the two monarchs refused to act sooner saw than he tore it down with his in concert. Instead of making a joint at- own hands, and trampled it under his feet. tack upon the town, the French monarch Philip, though he did not sympathize with assailed it alone, and was repulsed. Rich- the archduke, was piqued at the assumpard did the same, and with the same result. tion of Richard, and the breach between Philip tried to seduce the soldiers of Rich- the two monarchs became wider than ever. ard from their allegiance by the offer of A foolish dispute arose at the same time three gold pieces per month to every between Guy of Lusignan and Conrad of knight who would forsake the banners of Montferrat for the crown of Jerusalem; England for those of France. Richard the inferior knights were not slow to imendeavored to neutralize the offer by a itate the pernicious example ; and jeallarger one, and promised four pieces to ousy, distrust, and ill-will reigned in the every French knight who should join the Christian camp. In the midst of this conLion of England. In this unworthy ri- fusion the king of France suddenly anvalry their time was wasted, to the great nounced his intention to return to his own detriment of the discipline and efficiency country. hard was filled with indigof their followers. Some good was never- nation, and exclaimed, “ Eternal shame theless effected; for the mere presence of light on him, and on all France, if, for any two such armies prevented the besieged cause, he leaves this work unfinished !" city from receiving supplies, and the in- But Philip was not to be stayed. His habitants were reduced by famine to the health had suffered by his residence in the most woeful straits. Saladin did not deem East; and, ambitious of playing a first it prudent to risk a general engagement part, he preferred to play none at all than by coming to their relief, but preferred to to play second to King Richard. Leaving wait till dissension had weakened his a small detachment of Burgundians beenemy, and made him an easy prey. Per- hind, he returned to France with the haps if he had been aware of the real ex- remainder of his army; and Cour de Lion, tent of the extremity in Acre, he would without feeling, in the multitude of his have changed his plan; but, cut off from rivals, that he had lost the greatest, became the town, he did not know its misery till painfully convinced that the right arm of it was too late. After a short truce the the enterprise was lopped off. city capitulated upon terms so severe, that After his departure, Richard re-fortified Saladin afterward refused to ratify them. Acre, restored the Christian worship in The chief conditions were, that the pre- the churches, and, leaving a Christian garcious wood of the true cross, captured by rison to protect it, marched along the seathe Moslems in Jerusalem, should be re- coast toward Ascalon. Saladin was on stored ; that a sum of two hundred thou- the alert, and sent his light horse to attack sand gold pieces should be paid ; and that the rear of the Christian army, while he all the Christian prisoners in Acre should himself, miscalculating their weakness be released, together with two hundred since the defection of Philip, endeavored knights and a thousand soldiers detained to force them to a general engagement. in captivity by Saladin. The eastern The rival armies met near Azotus. A monarch, as may be well conceived, did fierce battle ensued, in which Saladin was not set much store on the wood of the defeated and put to flight, and the road cross, but was nevertheless anxious to to Jerusalem left free for the Crusaders. keep it, as he knew its possession by the Again discord exerted its baleful influChristians would do more than a victory | ence, and prevented Richard from follow

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ing up his victory. His opinion was and dry, and there was little water to be constantly opposed by the other leaders, procured. Saladin had choked up the all jealous of his bravery and influence; wells and cisterns on the route, and the and the army, instead of marching to Jeru- army had not zeal enough to push forward salem, or even to Ascalon, as was first amid such privation. At Bethlehem a intended, proceeded to Jaffa, and remained council was held, to debate whether they in idleness until Saladin was again in a should retreat or advance. Retreat was condition to wage war against them. decided upon, and immediately commenced.

Many months were spent in fruitless It is said, that Richard was first led to a hostilities and as fruitless negotiations. hill, whence he could obtain a sight of the Richard's wish was to recapture Jerusa- towers of Jerusalem; and that he was so lem ; but there were difficultiies in the affected at being so near it, and so unable way, which even his bold spirit could not to relieve it, that he hid his face behind conquer. His own intolerable pride was his shield, and sobbed aloud. not the least cause of the evil ; for it es The army separated into two divisions, tranged many a generous spirit, who would the smaller falling back upon Jaffa, and have been willing to coöperate with him the larger, commanded by Richard and in all cordiality. At length it was agreed the Duke of Burgundy, returning to Acre. to march to the Holy City; but the prog- Before the English monarch had made all ress made was so slow and painful, that his preparations for his return to Europe, the soldiers murmured, and the leaders a messenger reached Acre with the intelmeditated retreat. The weather was hot | ligence that Jaffa was besieged by Saladin,

FROM THE FRENCH

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and that, unless relieved immediately, the

THE OLD COCKADE. city would be taken. The French, under the Duke of Burgundy, were so wearied with the war, that they refused to aid N the year 1831 I was spending an their brethren in Jaffa. Richard, blushing evening at the house of a general, who with shame at their pusillanimity, called had been one of Napoleon's bravest offihis English to the rescue, and arrived just cers., There were some other guests, and in time to save the city. His very narne we were chatting sociably around the fire, put the Saracens to flight, so great was when M. Louis Jacquet was announced, their dread of his prowess. Saladin re- and we saw an extremely handsome young garded him with the warmest admiration ; officer of marines enter. He seemed to and when Richard, after his victory, de- be about twenty-two years old ; his counmanded peace, willingly acceded. A truce tenance was frank and open, his bearing was concluded for three years and eight singularly graceful, and his ensign's unimonths, during which Christian pilgrims form-evidently quite new—was put on were to enjoy the liberty of visiting Jeru- with much care and neatness. One porsalem without hinderance or payment of tion of his costume, however, contrasted any tax. The Crusaders were allowed to oddly enough with the rest. In the black, retain the cities of Tyre and Jaffa, with glossy cap, which he carried in his hand, the country intervening. Saladin, with a was fastened an old, soiled, faded cockade. princely generosity, invited many of the Involuntarily many eyes glanced curiously Christians to visit Jerusalem; and several at this incongruous decoration ; and our of the leaders took advantage of his offer host, in a whisper, drew his wife's attento feast their eyes upon a spot which alltion to this circumstance; to which she considered so sacred. Many of them were replied by a gentle smile. M. Jacquet entertained for days in the sultan's own blushed deeply, yet not with an air of palace, from which they returned with their shame or confusion, but rather with one tongues laden with the praises of the noble of genuine modesty. And the general, infidel.

taking his hand, said :Richard and Saladin never met, though “You are a brave lad, Louis." the impression that they did will remain The general's wife then took his hand; on many minds, who have been dazzled and the young officer kissed hers, with by the glorious fiction of Sir Walter Scott. respectful tenderness. But each admired the prowess and noble- This little scene interested us all, yet ness of soul of his rival, and agreed to no one ventured to ask its explanation ; terms far less onerous than either would when an old officer, who had been rather have accepted, had this mutual admiration silent hitherto, suddenly rose, and said to not existed. *

our host :The king of England no longer delayed “So this is your Jacquet, general; and his departure, for messengers from his this is the real cockade !” own country brought imperative news that And taking the cap from its owner's his presence was required to defeat the hands, he looked at its battered ornament intrigues that were fomenting against his with strange fondness, while a tear rolled crown. His long imprisonment in the down on his gray moustache. Every one Austrian dominions and final ransom are present then crowded round to examine too well known to be dwelt upon. And the mysterious cockade, and asked the thus ended the third Crusade, less de- general to tell its history. structive of human life than the first two, As he hesitated, the old officer said :but quite as useless.

“ 'Tis a story which I am sure will in

terest you ; and, with the permission of Richard left a high reputation in Palestine. our host and his young friend, I will tell So much terror did his name occasion, that the

it." women of Syria used it to frighten their children for ages afterward. Every disobedient

No objection being made, he began child became still when told that King Richard thus :was coming. Even men shared the panic that * After the memorable interview behis name created ; and a hundred years after

tween Napoleon and Alexander, the forward, whenever a horse shied at any object in the way, his rider would exclaim, “ What! dost

mer of these two emperors wishing to thou think King Richard is in the bush ?”. show to the other the troops which had

VOL. V.-7

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