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larger than any of these animals. Take a black-and

tan collie, double its size, and you have very much what “ Julia" became after he had been a few months in my possession ; for when I got him he was only five or six months old. The only differences were that the tail was thicker and more bushy, the jaw more powerful, and he had large dew-claws upon his hind feet.

Black dogs of this kind are called sussa by the Tibetans, and the red species, of which I had a friend at Pú, are mustang. The wild dog is said to go up to the snow-line in the Himalaya, and to hunt in packs ; but I never saw or heard of any, and I suspect their habitat is only the Indian side of the Himálaya. Such packs of dogs undoubtedly exist on the Western Ghauts of India, and they are not afraid of attacking the tiger, overcoming it piecemeal, while the enraged lord of the forest can only destroy a small number of his assailants; but very little is really known about them. An interesting field for the zoologist is still open in an examination of the wild dog of Western India, the wild ass, yak, and horse of Tibet, and the wild camel, which is rumoured still to exist in the forests to the east of Yarkand. I mentioned this latter animal to Dr Stoliczka, who had not heard of it, and thought that such camels would be only specimens of the domestic species which had got loose and established themselves, with their progeny, in the wilderness ; but the subject is worthy of investigation, from a scientific point of view; and, perhaps, the Yarkand Mission may have brought back some information in regard to it.

But though Djeóla was most savage on being tied up and transferred to a new owner, there was nothing


essentially savage, rude, brutish, or currish in its nature. Indeed it very soon reminded me of the admirable words of Lord Bacon : "Take an example of a Dogy, and mark what generosity and courage he will put on when he is maintained by a man who to him is instead of a god or melior natura.” It not only became reconciled to me, but watched over me with an almost ludicrous fidelity, and never got entirely reconciled even to my servants. The striking my tent in the morning was an interference with its private property to which it strongly objected, and if not kept away at that time it would attack the bigarrís engaged. I also found on getting to Kashmír that it regarded all Sahibs as suspicious characters, to be laid hold of at once; but, fortunately, it had a way of seizing them without doing much damage, as it would hold a sheep, and the men it did seize were good-natured sportsmen. It delighted in finding any boy among our bigarrís that it could tyrannise over, but never really hurt him. It was very fond of biting the heels of yaks and horses, and thinking itself ill-treated when they kicked. Its relations with Nako were also amusing. That old warrior had no jealousy of Djebla, and treated it usually with silent contempt, unless it drew near when he was feeding—a piece of temerity which the young dog soon learned the danger of. But Djeola would sometimes indulge in gamesome and affectionate fits towards Nako, which the latter never invited and barely tolerated, and which usually resulted in a short and sharp fight, in which Djebla got speedly vanquished, but took its punishment as a matter of course, and without either fear or anger. I had intended this Himalayan giant sheep-dog for the admirable writer and genial sage, Dr John Brown, who has given us 'Rab and his Friends,' who would have been able to do justice to its merits and compare it with the sheep-dogs of Scotland, but could not arrange that conveniently, and left it with a friend at Púna, where, I fear, it has got into a bad way, the latest report of it being that it “has bitten everybody.”

When in the Shigri valley I kept a watch for any symptoms of gold, but did not notice any, and on other grounds should not think it likely that gold exists there in any quantity. But Mr Theodor, a German employed in carrying out the construction of the road over the Barra Lacha Pass, told me that he had found silver ore in this valley. I may mention that the first great' glacier which I crossed has pushed its way into the Chandra, and threatens to close up that river in a very serious manner, as it once did before, which might lead to disasters in the valleys of the Chandra-Bhaga and of the Chenab, similar to those which occurred in the Drance and upper Rhone valleys of Switzerland in 1595 and 1819.





OCCASIONALLY, I think, a living flower is found on Swiss glaciers, but very rarely-whereas on the Himálayan, flowers are by no means uncommon; and the circumstance is easily accounted for by the greater power of the sun in the Himalayan regions, and also by the fact, that when the glaciers get down a certain distance, they are so thickly covered by shattered rocks that they have to work their way, as it were, underground. In Switzerland, one often sees the great ploughshare of a glacier coming down into a green valley and throwing up the turf before it; but usually among the Himálaya, long before the glacier reaches any green valley, it is literally overwhelmed and buried beneath the shattered fragments of rock from the gigantic precipices and peaks around. This slackens, without altogether arresting, its progress; so that in many places the debris is allowed sufficient rest to permit of the growth of grass and flowers. It struck me that in some places there were even what might be called subterranean glaciers ; that is to say, that the fallen debris had so formed together and solidified, that the ice-stream worked below it without disturbing the solidified surface.

And here, as I am well acquainted with the Alps, * it may not be amiss for me to compare the Himalaya with those European mountains, which are so well known to the English public. The Himálaya, as a whole, are not so richly apparelled as the Alps. In Kashmír, and some parts of the Sutlej valley, and of the valleys on their Indian front, they are rich in the most glorious vegetation, and present, in that respect, a more picturesque appearance than any parts of Switzerland can boast of; but one may travel among the great

; ranges of the Asiatic.mountains for weeks, and even months, through the most sterile scenes, without coming on any of these regions of beauty. There is not here the same close union of beauty and grandeur, loveliness and sublimity, which is everywhere to be found over the Alps. There is a terrible want of level ground and of green meadows enclosed by trees. Except in Kashmír, and about the east of Ladák, there are no lakes. We miss much those Swiss and Italian expanses of deep blue water, in which white towns and villages, snowy peaks and dark mountains, are so beautifully mirrored. There is also a great want of perennial waterfalls of great height and beauty, such as the Staubbach ; though in summer, during the heat of the day, the Himalaya, in several places, present long graceful streaks of dust-foam.

The striking contrasts and the more wonderful scenes

* See “Switzerland in Summer and Autumn," by the author, in * Blackwood's Magazine' for 1865-66.


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