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morbid sensibility of the nerves, as to entirely break up the disease, even though of many years' duration.

To Sir James Murray, M.D., the profession owe a deep debt of gratitude for the first introduction of inhalations of iodine, as a remedy in tuberculous consumption and other diseases of the lungs and air-passages. Sir James, in his interesting dissertation on this subject, observes :

"With respect to the inhalation of iodine, if I had not abundant proofs of its value, I would not be the first to make use of it; but I can with safety assert that it will sometimes heal, if early applied; and it will give rest, and repose, and relief, in cases where it is impossible to cure."-Vide Treatise on Consumption.'

Dr. Harwood, late physician to the Hastings Dispensary, in his able treatise on Diseases of the Throat and Chest,' remarks:

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Although I am unable to speak from my own observation of the curative effects of inhalations of iodine in consumption, when employed independently of other methods of treatment, I am happy to be able to state, that its careful use in combination with them has occasionally been attended with very satisfactory results. Thus, amongst other less decided cases, in instances in which the symptoms and sounds of the chest, as manifested by the use of the stethoscope and by percussion, have appeared to other physicians, with myself, to prove the existence of tubercles of the lungs, the patients have lost all indication of existing disease. At least I may observe, that during a long, and, at present, uncertain period, a quiescent state in the diseased structure of the lungs has followed the use of these combined means; and, with the general evidences of restored health, great improvement has also taken place in the sounds of the chest, a state which I presume may be regarded as that of recovery. And I have additional satisfaction in being able to add, that the same favourable results have succeeded the continued employment of these measures, even when suppuration and other symptoms, as distinctly the result of pulmonary excavations, coexistent with tubercles, have been present."

Almost simultaneously with Sir James Murray's treatise, appeared an invaluable work written by the late Sir Charles

Scudamore, M.D., F.R.S., in the year 1829, 'On the Efficacy of Iodine and various Medicines administered by Inhalation in Consumption and certain Morbid States of the Trachea and Bronchial Tubes.' That the results of this mode of treatment were equally successful after the appearance of the work, will be apparent from the subjoined observations published by Sir Charles in the Lancet' for 1841-42:

"It is now fourteen years since I was led to make trial of iodine, in the form of inhalation, as being a medicine highly capable of stimulating the absorbents of the lungs, which are not few, to remove tubercular matter; of inducing a healing process in a cavity when formed; and of correcting the morbid action of the bronchial mucous membrane. Experience has amply justified my recommendation of this treatment, and I have had the happiness of succeeding in very numerous cases, in which according to all my former experience, with the old methods of practice I must have failed. It has been sometimes called a mere local treat

ment, and when it is so, how much deduction would be made from its importance? But even this criticism is not just. The inhalation acts on the whole system, as I have had proof of, by witnessing, even inconveniently, the constitutional effects of iodine; but to this admission let me add, such disagreement has not happened in so large a proportion of instances as one in a hundred. When I deliberately affirm this as a truth, surely the most timid cannot shrink from the remedy. What medicine is there, of any power, which does not occasionally disagree in particular idiosyncracies of constitution ? "

Relative to the scepticism which was entertained by some of his contemporaries as to the efficacy of the treatment by inhalation, Sir Charles well remarks:

"I cannot refrain from remarking that some are so bigoted to their experience and old methods of practice (consecrated by time, but certainly not recommended by success), that they repel the introduction of what is new, especially when the remedy requires much watchfulness of its action in order to insure good results. Great perseverance, also, is necessary; nor can this appear remarkable, if we reflect upon the important and difficult nature of the work to be accomplished,—the removal of tubercular matter from the lungs by means of absorption; the healing of an excavation;

the relief and cure of bronchial disease; and, lastly, a change to be effected in the system-in the whole mass of the blood. It is true that our best and most anxious efforts may frequently be doomed to meet with pain and disappointment, but the satisfaction of the occasional success with which we may be rewarded will be proportionably gratifying; and in those instances where the inveteracy of the disease will not permit success, we should assure ourselves conscientiously that we have done all in our power to obtain it."

Dr. Wilson has published in the 'Lancet' (vols. i. and ii., 1841-42) several interesting papers on the beneficial effects of inhalations of iodine in pulmonary consumption, and says:

"I know full well the extreme difficulty that presents itself of combating the old and confirmed prejudices entertained by the majority of my profession and the public against the curability of consumption, and I must admit that medical records but serve to strengthen such conclusions; but an enlightened and liberal profession should be open to conviction, free to embrace facts, and earnest to solicit inquiry. We have seen to what a surprising extent prejudice has blinded us to the most valuable remedial agents. Many of our best medicines were popular remedies before the medical world would admit them into their vocabulary. Iodine, to a great extent, shared the same fate; and the physician who had the hardihood to recommend the internal use of cantharides was prosecuted, and suffered the penalty of his sagacity-but taught his followers the safety and value of his practice. Doubtless a new system of treatment should be received with due caution, but divested of all prejudice. If certain results and certain facts are stated, a fair trial of their intrinsic worth should be made, and particularly if they refer to a disease which, to a sad extent, has baffled medical skill, and defied the ingenuity of the greatest talent."

The history of medicine affords abundant proofs of the acrimony, nay, the fury, with which every new doctrine has been impugned and insulted. The same annals will also show that this spirit of intolerance has always been in the ratio of the truths that these doctrines tended to bring into light. The practice of inhalation has no doubt been impeded in its progress by the invectives of occasional scepticism; but the slurs of the sceptic may be compared, as an intelligent

writer has well observed, to those accidental opaque bodies commonly called "spots on the sun," which frequently flit before its disc, and, intercepting the solar rays, occasion a hibernal chill in the midst of the summer's heat. They are but transient obstacles to the transmission of light, and the bright orb beams with increased refulgence when these dark stigmas disappear. Such will ever be the case with science, and those discoveries which accelerate its inevitable empire on the human understanding. Persecution may be considered as the harbinger of truth, or at any rate, of that investigation which directs us to it. Pythagoras was banished from Athens, Anaxagoras was immured in a dungeon, Democritus was considered a maniac, and Socrates condemned to death. An advanced and honourable old age did not protect Galileo against his barbarous persecutors; Varolius was decried as an infamous and execrable man for his anatomical discoveries; and our immortal Harvey was looked upon as a dangerous madman. Innoculation and vaccination were deemed impious attempts to interfere with the decrees of Providence, and potatoes and tobacco looked upon as infernal importations!

But, perhaps, it is as well there should be these drawbacks, for there is a pleasure great and supporting in the pursuit of a worthy object amid such elements of discouragement and depression. The opposition, too, which a new idea is certain to meet with serves to prevent hasty and ill-considered attempts at innovation, to keep back all but those who are fully convinced of the truth of their doctrines, and earnest and sincere in their advocacy, and at the same time it prepares no inconsiderable portion of the reward of the man who has the courage to differ from established theories and unsound maxims; for he is ultimately both cheered and soothed by the recollection of trampling over past obstacles and difficulties, and his value is more justly estimated when his opinions are eventually received as truths, and are, as they must be, appreciated in direct proportion to the scepticism

and distrust with which they were at first looked upon. Ignorance and scepticism are, indeed, the foils which set off knowledge and perseverance.

According to my experience and observation, no reasonable doubt can be entertained that tubercles in the lungs are scrofulous deposits: the same view is entertained by many high authorities in this country and abroad. I have examined, post mortem, a great number of scrofulous patients, and have rarely met with an instance in which the lungs were not more or less affected with tubercles. Professors Louis, Graves, and others, have noticed that, if we trace the phenomena of external scrofulous abscesses, we shall be struck with the close analogy they bear in their manner of appearance, their progress, and terminations, to the ulcerations of the lungs in consumption: the same slowness; the same gradual solidification and gradual softening; the similarity of puriform fluid secreted in each; the analogous occurrences of burrowing ulcers and fistulous openings; the close approximation in the form of their parietes; and the difficulty of healing remarked in both; make the resemblance between them extremely striking. Compare scrofulous inflammation of the hip or knee joint with consumptive suppuration of the lungs have we not the same kind of hectic fever, the same flushings and sweats, the same state of the urine, the same diarrhoea, the same state of the appetite, and the same state of emaciation ?

With this conviction of the identity of consumption with scrofula, I was induced, at the instigation of the late Sir Charles Scudamore, M.D., to apply (some twenty years ago) to tuberculous lungs, by means of inhalation, that remedy, iodine, which had been found to be most efficacious for the cure of scrofulous enlargements and sores on the surface of the body. The results of this treatment have more than realised my best expectations; and I am well convinced, from the experience of the cases of many hundred patients, who have been thus restored, and who had been previously considered as incurable, that iodine has the decided power of

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