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had been gazetted to the rank of him. The letters that he wrote to commander, obtained immediate cheer and comfort her in her mortal promotion on his return, his cap- sickness—written, some of them, tain's commission being dated the when she had been lying for nearly 20th November 1822. The Royal two months in her grave Society, “in recognition of his in- among the most touching extracts valuable exertions in the cause of that we find in Mr Traill's volume. geographical science, whilst con- It was good for him that work, ducting one of the most remark- and that of the most active kind, able journeys achieved," lay before him. Once more, deoffered him its Fellowship. On spite the terrible experiences of all hands he was welcomed and his former journey, he was to fêted as the hero of the day. Had undertake the exploration of the he been other than he was he northern coast-line of America, and would have run no little risk of once more it was decided by the being spoilt. But he was of all authorities to co-operate by sea. men most simple-minded and From Icy Cape, near Bering's modest; more anxious to return Strait, where Cook had left off his to his cherished schemes of ex- discoveries, to the mouth of the ploration along the Polar shore Coppermine river, where his own of the New World than to figure had begun, the map was a blank, as the lion of the season in London and this blank it was determined drawing - rooms. Moreover, an to fill in. The expedition was to important event had occurred to be on a very different scale from lessen the claims of ordinary the former one: the voyageurs society life upon him, for a few were to be in part replaced by months after his return to Eng- British sailors, and English-made land he married Miss Eleanor boats were to supplant the Indian Porden, with whose family he had canoes. His companions were all been for some time acquainted.

that he could desire. First to Franklin's first marriage was, in volunteer were his old comrades one sense, destined to be little Richardson and Back. Lieumore than a passing episode of tenant Kendall joined as survey his life. Within eighteen months officer and Mr Drummond as of the wedding-day he was left a naturalist, while in Mr Dease, a widower with a little child, and Hudson's Bay Company's official with the remembrance of a more who ten years later was to make bitter trial than any he had till himself celebrated by his wonderthen been called upon to endure. ful journeys, they found an indeFor, once more, the call to active fatigable assistant whose local service had come, and inexorable knowledge and experience of the duty necessitated the parting with natives were invaluable. The plan one who was even then almost in of the expedition, as on the first the throes of death, and whose occasion, was left very much to malady, a rapid consumption, pre- Franklin's own judgment. cluded all hope of their meeting As far as Fort Resolution on again in this world. Six days Great Slave Lake the route folafter her husband's ship had sailed lowed was the same as that taken for America Mrs Franklin died. on his first journey. But instead Those were the days of rare and of proceeding thence northward in slow communication, and weeks the direction of the Coppermine elapsed before the news reached river, his boats were headed for

was

more expeditions in the following make too great an inroad upon year. This time one of them was their fast-decreasing stock of time to be by land, and Franklin was if they returned to their startingselected as its commander. Ex- point on the coast, and on reaching cept at the points where Hearne the mouth of Hood's river on the and Mackenzie had touched it, the 25th August they determined to whole of the Arctic coast-line of leave their boats and hold a North America was unknown, and straight course across country to this it was that was selected for Fort Enterprise. Little

more exploration, Franklin

to than 200 miles intervened beproceed to Hudson's Bay and tween them and their destination, make a running survey of the yet these two hundred miles were coast lying to the east of the to afford an example of the most mouth of the Coppermine river, appalling suffering and the most but the choice of his route was determined bravery recorded in left to his discretion. He selected the annals of British explorations. that by the Great Slave Lake as There can be few of us—few at all most opened up by the Hudson events of the older of us who Bay Company, and landing at have not read that terrible but York Factory in Hudson's Bay on fascinating story,—the rapid onset the 30th August 1819, reached of the cold, the failure of the proCumberland House on the Saskat visions, the growing realisation by chewan on the 23d September. It the explorers of the fate in store was not till the 18th July follow- for them, the wellnigh hopeless ing that they again started on struggle of the half-frozen and their journey, and again they had slowly perishing men for their to winter ere they were able to lives, the summary execution of reach the sea. This time they the murderer (and worse than were favoured by an early season, murderer) Michel, and the arrival and were able to leave Fort En- of the survivors at Fort Enterterprise on the 4th June 1821.1 On prise, only to find it deserted and the 21st of the following month foodless, and to experience before they were afloat on the Arctic help reached them an almost more Ocean.

ghastly period of suffering than Their canoes, fitted only for that they had already gone through. river use, rendered the sea voyage All this will be remembered by a hazardous affair; they had al- every one who has read the story; ready suffered from lack of pro- but as related by the practised pen visions, and the time available for of Mr Traill the facts have lost work was short. Franklin must nothing in force and vividness. already have foreseen difficulties of the original party of 18, 10 ahead. He allowed himself had died; but though Hood had period of four weeks in which to come to so tragic an end, the rest carry out the survey, and then of the English had escaped, and gave orders for the return. The Richardson, Back, and Hepburn voyageurs who were with him had reached home with their gallant in vain counselled an earlier re- leader after an absence of three treat, and it would have been well years, to find all England ringing had their advice been followed. with their exploit. It became evident that it would Franklin, who during his absence

a

1 Mr Traill's dates of this period are, we may remark, inextricably confused.

are

ever

an

had been gazetted to the rank of him. The letters that he wrote to commander, obtained immediate cheer and comfort her in her mortal promotion on his return, his cap- sickness—written, some of them, tain's commission being dated the when she had been lying for nearly 20th November 1822. The Royal two months in her grave Society, “in recognition of his in- among the most touching extracts valuable exertions in the cause of that we find in Mr Traill's volume. geographical science, whilst con- It was good for him that work, ducting one of the most remark- and that of the most active kind, able journeys achieved,” lay before him. Once more, deoffered him its Fellowship. On spite the terrible experiences of all hands he was welcomed and his former journey, he was to fêted as the hero of the day. Had undertake the exploration of the he been other than he was he northern coast-line of America, and would have run no little risk of once more it was decided by the being spoilt. But he was of all authorities to co-operate by sea. men most simple-minded and From Icy Cape, near Bering's modest; more anxious to return Strait, where Cook had left off his to his cherished schemes of ex- discoveries, to the mouth of the ploration along the Polar shore Coppermine river, where his own of the New World than to figure had begun, the map was a blank, as the lion of the season in London and this blank it was determined drawing - rooms. Moreover, to fill in. The expedition was to important event had occurred to be on a very different scale from lessen the claims of ordinary the former one: the voyageurs society life upon him, for a few were to be in part replaced by months after his return to Eng. British sailors, and English-made land he married Miss Eleanor boats were to supplant the Indian Porden, with whose family he had canoes. His companions were all been for some time acquainted. that he could desire. First to

Franklin's first marriage was, in volunteer were his old comrades one sense, destined to be little Richardson and Back. Lieumore than a passing episode of tenant Kendall joined as survey his life. Within eighteen months officer and Mr Drummond as of the wedding-day he was left a naturalist, while in Mr Dease, a widower with a little child, and Hudson's Bay Company's official with the remembrance of a more who ten years later was to make bitter trial than any he had till himself celebrated by his wonderthen been called upon to endure. ful journeys, they found an indeFor, once more, the call to active fatigable assistant whose local service had come, and inexorable knowledge and experience of the duty necessitated the parting with natives were invaluable. The plan one who was even then almost in of the expedition, as on the first the throes of death, and whose occasion, was left very much to malady, a rapid consumption, pre- Franklin's own judgment. cluded all hope of their meeting As far as Fort Resolution on again in this world. Six days Great Slave Lake the route folafter her husband's ship had sailed lowed was the same as that taken for America Mrs Franklin died. on his first journey. But instead Those were the days of rare and of proceeding thence northward in slow communication, and weeks the direction of the Coppermine elapsed before the news reached river, his boats were headed for

course.

the western end of the lake, where tween this point and the Copperthe Mackenzie river begins its mine river. · With them we have

Its rapid current bore nothing to do, although it is pleasthem in less than a week to Fort ant to be able to record that Norman-one of the farthest out- unbroken success attended them, posts of the Hudson's Bay Com- and that they safely returned to pany-which they reached on the Fort Franklin, 89 the winter 7th August 1825. Here a halt

quarters were called, on the 1st was made, and the future plans September, after surveying 900 of the expedition discussed. miles of coast and completing a

The winter was not yet upon journey of more than twice that them, and there accordingly re- length. The same good fortune mained some time for reconnais- did not favour the other party. sances, of which they were glad It has been said of Franklin that to take advantage. Franklin de- he was one of the few successful spatched Back and Dease to the men who invariably failed, and north to erect winter quarters at fail he certainly did upon this octhe south-west extremity of Great casion. Constant fog, an obstacle Bear Lake; while Richardson, at he had met with but twice upon

own request, explored the his first land-journey, hindered his northern shore of this great inland progress, as did the great abundsea, with the special view of making ance of shore - ice encountered. himself acquainted with the route Little by little, however, the boats by which he might return from a fought their way westward, till a survey of the coast of the Arctic distance of nearly 400 miles had Ocean, of which he was to have been accomplished. Then the order charge in the ensuing summer. for return had to be reluctantly Meanwhile Franklin had set him- given, for, though they had less self a more formidable task—that than a fortnight of August left to of descending the Mackenzie to them, they were not half-way to Icy the sea, and returning before Cape, the spot where Beechey in winter set in. Fortunately all the Blossom had arranged to meet three designs were carried out them. Thus for the second time without a hitch, and Franklin Franklin was doomed to disappointhad the melancholy satisfaction ment, though he was happily not of hoisting at the mouth of the called upon to face the appalling river the silken union-jack which disaster that overtook him in his had been worked for him by his first endeavour. The expedition dying wife, and which it was her reached its old quarters on Great desire that he should not unroll Bear Lake in good condition before till the Arctic Ocean was reached. the winter had set in, and Franklin

The winter passed without in- was back in England once more cident, and on the 22d June 1826 in September 1827, with a running the season was considered suffi- survey of twelve hundred miles of ciently far advanced for the voyage previously unknown coast-line to to be resumed. The descent of his credit. His failure, after all, the Mackenzie was more spelt success. safely accomplished, and at its Warmly as he had been wel. mouth Richardson's party bade comed home in 1822, his reception adieu to the others, and turning on this occasion was no less gratieastward, began their task of sur fying. The Geographical Society veying the coast-line which lay be- of Paris presented him with their

once

a

It was

gold medal, and later he became quainted. ,

With each, too, the guest of the Duc d'Orléans. tragedy was connected similar in A visit to St Petersburg resulted kind; for in both cases the call in his being entertained at dinner of duty brought about a parting by the Emperor, who showed the which was to be final in this greatest interest in his voyages; world. and his own country — though

not surprising that somewhat more tardy in doing Franklin on his return should him honour-eventually joined in be drawn to the society of one the approbation expressed by Eu- who, like Miss Griffin, had been rope by knighting him. In the on terms of intimacy with his summer of 1829 the University of wife, and still less, perhaps, that Oxford conferred

upon

him the she should have eventually become honorary degree of D.C.L. The the latter's successor. Her father, old diaries kept by one of his Mr John Griffin, a man of some relatives during that “Commem." fortune, was himself an enthusilie at our elbow, and testify to astic traveller, but he was not, as the wild enthusiasm with which Mr Traill states, “a solicitor of he and Parry-who was accorded high standing in his profession," a similar honour—were greeted on nor indeed in any way connected the occasion. Parry was unmoved with the legal profession. A by the roar from undergraduate Huguenot by descent-for in spite

— throats; but Franklin, who was of its appearance the name is evidently unprepared for such a French his family had for a reception, and rather disliked lengthy period been engaged in publicity, showed traces of a ner- that industry by which the Revovousness which his comrades in cation of the Edict of Nantes so the terrible struggle to Fort En- enriched England - namely, silkterprise would perhaps scarcely weaving. His wife, Miss Guillehave suspected.

mard, also came of an old HugueA little packet of letters is in not family which settled in Engthe writer's possession which has land at the end of the seventeenth escaped the waste-paper basket for century. One of three beautiful three-quarters of a century. They sisters, Miss Griffin's attractions deal with no State secrets, and are were not confined to what Carpenned by no learned hand. As- lyle has contemptuously termed sociation alone can be pleaded to

the
"external wrappage

of the justify their preservation, for they man.” Vivacious, animated, and are merely the letters of two intelligent—in a word, alive to schoolgirls, who can have been but her fingertips-she had met and ill educated, for in their day Gir- known a pretty large proportion ton was non-existent and The of the interesting people of the Heavenly Twins' unpublished. day, and had travelled extensively Some are addressed “Miss Por- with her father in almost every den,” the others

“Miss Griffin, part of Europe. Franklin's choice 21 Bedford Place"; and the in- is not difficult to understand, and terest of them lies in the fact that it was a happy one is proved that each writer was destined by the camaraderie subsisting beafterwards to become the wife of tween them during his lifetime, him of whom we are now writing, and the devotion which led her but with whom at that time they later to spend the greater part of were apparently not

her time and fortune in the solu

even

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