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pictures of the Templars, and became once more a Moslem place of prayer, the great gold cross being dragged from its dome. King Guy was released on promising not to fight again; but the Latin clergy absolved him from his oath, and at Tyre he gathered a force of 9000 men, and marched south along the shore to attempt the reconquest of Acre.

The two years' struggle which followed was one of extraordinary obstinacy. Acre was held by a garrison of 6000 Moslems, and the whole army of Saladin, including not only his own subjects in Syria and Egypt but also forces sent by the Atabeks of Môsul, advanced from upper Galilee to its support. The city, protected by double walls, stood on a promontory north of the broad shallow bay. To the south the Belus river ran through gardens to the sea; on the north were open plains under the rough Galilean hills; to the east and south-east were sanddunes and marshes, where the Moslems camped in winter on the Tells, surrounded with mud and water. The Christian army thrust itself between the city and Saladin's army, holding a hill on which in later times Napoleon placed his batteries to bombard the town; and here they made a rampart and ditch surrounding Acre and shutting out the relieving force.

Reinforced from time to time by Germans, Flemish, French, and English, they clung to this strange position, in spite of defeat, famine, and sickness, from the 30th August 1189 to the middle of May 1191, trusting to the much-delayed appearance of the French and English armies. Thus, when King Richard landed at Pentecost of the latter year, he found all Palestine in Saladin's hands, and only a square mile of sand held by the

Christians, between Acre and the Moslem host. The achievement of the Latins, in thus holding a landing-place in face of the united forces of Islam, was one of the most remarkable in the history of Crusades; but the final failure of their efforts was certain, if they had not been delivered by the large army brought to their assist


Richard was thirty-four years of age, tall, strong, and ruddy, famous already for his gallantry and daring, and respected among European Princes for his masterful character. On his way to the East he had wrung from Tancred of Sicily the dower due to his sister Joan, who came with him in charge of Berengaria of Navarre. He had conquered Cyprus where Berengaria was wedded and crowned Queen of England; and he brought a fleet of 120 English galleys to Palestine, to find the French vainly attempting to mine the walls of Acre. His appearance gave new hope and new energy to the Franks, but his popularity roused the jealousy of Philip of France. On the 12th July, however, Acre surrendered to the united forces, after its walls had been ruined and the great tower Maledictum, at the north-east angle of the outer wall, had fallen. Saladin saw with dismay the Christian banners on the walls, but refused to recognise the terms on which the garrison was promised life-namely, the surrender of all his captives, and of the true cross, which he also held to ransom. King Richard executed all the prisoners taken, when the time granted had expired; and Saladin, retreating to Caymont, east of Carmel, was so infuriated by this massacre that in future he put to death all Christians who fell into his hands.

The contest was, however, yet undecided, since no great battle in the open had yet occurred. On the 1st of August the French king went home, and the Frenchmen were very unwilling to follow Richard; for he supported the claims of King Guy, who had helped him in Cyprus; while Philip advocated the claims of Conrad of Montferrat, who had married Isabel, divorced by the clergy from Humphrey de Toron. An army of 100,000 men, however, marched with Richard along the sea plains to occupy Cæsarea, Jaffa, and Ascalon; and on this march the crowning victory of the campaign was won. The chronicles enable us to trace each day's advance, and to recognise every halting-place by the streams which flow through the plain of Sharon to the sea. It was but four days' march, yet so slow and cautious was the advance that three weeks elapsed before Jaffa was reached. The Moslem forces gathered in the low hills south of Carmel, and camped at 'Ain el Asâwîr. Richard followed the shore road west of Carmel, marching in five great divisions, with a flanking force to his east under Henry of Champagne, who (through his grandmother, Eleanor of Guienne) was Richard's half-nephew, and also half-nephew of Philip of France. The Templars led the van; the Bretons and Angevins followed; King Guy in the centre led the men of Poitou ; the Normans and English followed round the standard, which was dragged on a heavy truck; and the Knights Hospitallers brought up the rear. Harassed by the arrows of Saladin's light horsemen, the army moved on under the burning sun, until on the 7th September they found themselves on the sandy hills above the low cliffs, five miles north of the small

fortress of Arsûf, in an open woodland of oaks called the Forest of Arsur.

It was here that the final contest was decided. Saladin is said to have had 300,000 men, but Richard's army was reduced by garrisons and desertions to about 50,000. The whole of Saladin's force burst upon him from the east, attacking the Hospitallers in rear. Troop after troop of the black-robed Knights charged inland, while Saladin's Guard, in yellow kaftans, strove to drive the Christians over the cliffs into the


King Richard, on his bay Cyprian steed, hewed a broad path through their ranks, and after an obstinate battle, lasting all day, the Moslems, already discouraged by their failure at Acre, fled to Mejdel Yaba on the way to Jerusalem, leaving King Guy to witness a victory yet greater than his defeat at Hattîn. Thus, by the winter of 1191 all the shore plains were recovered by the English, and Saladin, in utter dejection at Jerusalem, was daily expecting to see the Christians before its walls. Praying before the "Holy Rock" in the Mosque, he cast himself on the mercy of God, when suddenly the news came that the Franks had broken up their camp at Beit Nûba, within twelve miles of the Holy City, and had retreated to Ascalon and Jaffa.

This failure to push home the victory was due to many causes. The Templars wished to march to Egypt. The French refused to follow Richard unless he recognised Conrad of Montferrat. Richard himself was ill with fever; and bad news came from England; while no further funds could be raised to carry on the war. Saladin's resources were, however, equally exhausted, and intrigues

of the Atabeks with his own exhausted, and both were willing nephew weakened his cause. Dur- to make peace. ing the winter Richard strove to reunite the various factions, and arranged to give Cyprus to King Guy, and to recognise Conrad of Montferrat, who was, however, killed by the Assassins at Tyre immediately after, on the 28th April 1192. Henry of Champagne, who then married Isabel, was chosen as his successor, being well regarded by both French and English, as being related to both kings. When, however, after Easter, the English again marched to the foot of the Jerusalem hills, the same discord broke out once more. The Syrian Franks said that no water could be found near the city, and again advised an advance on Egypt. Ill and disgusted, King Richard retired to Acre, and prepared to sail home; and Saladin was encouraged to march on Jaffa, which he took by assault. King Richard returned in haste, and, while the garrison of the citadel were on the point of submitting, he leapt into the surf from his red galley, and fought his way on shore in his "sea-shoes." Aided by a few knights mounted on mules, he again drove Saladin to the hills, taking many important prisoners. The two champions thus confronted each other utterly

The famous truce which was signed on 2d September 1192 was equally distasteful to Christians and Moslems, but it practically settled the Eastern Question for many years after. All the plains remained to the Latins, and the mountains to the Moslems. Jerusalem was recognised as a place of Christian pilgrimage, and priests were allowed in its cathedral, and at Nazareth and Bethlehem. Richard's success was not complete, but Saladin never won a battle against him. He recovered more than 3000 square miles of Syria for Christendom, and added an equal area to the Latin dominions in Cyprus. He defeated the greatest Moslem of the age in three battles at Acre, Arsûf, and Jaffa-and stayed the Moslem advance on Europe which Saladin threatened. He not only made a mighty name in Europe, which strengthened him at home, but he re-established European trade in all the ports of the Levant. Those who pass over lightly his achievements, and speak of his failure, seem hardly to do justice to his memory, or to be in sympathy with the strong feelings of medieval Europe concerning the Holy Land. C. R. CONDER.

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ALTHOUGH the goat and the sheep are commonly classed to gether, and not unfrequently run in company, there is a great difference between them in habits and disposition. In the first place, the goat immediately regains the faculties which enable it to thrive as a wild animal whenever it escapes from human control. One finds goats which have run wild almost all the world over where there are mountains. The goat is distinctly a climber among the rocks, whereas the ancestor of the sheep, unless alarmed by a foe, grazed on the grassy slopes of the hillsides. Wild goats to this day prefer to live among precipices and broken crags, and to browse upon the leaves of scattered shrubs which find lodgment in the clefts and crannies. It is a more sure-footed animal than the sheep, and, moreover, adopts different methods of progression when among its native haunts; for where sheep prefer to jump, goats usually prefer to clamber. One can see by merely observing the outline of a goat that it is not so well adapted for jumping, and is better adapted for climbing, than a sheep. It is altogether more alert in its movements, and evidently bestows more thought on the process of locomotion. Its hinder quarters have not the swelling muscles which propel the wild sheep from rock to rock, but are rather lean and light. Hence the great difference (at times overlooked in Wales) between a leg of goat and a leg of mutton. The great difference shown between the two animals in character is probably owing to

the fact that, where the wild goats feed, it is necessary for the herd to become scattered and for each to find its own way. Hence, doubtless, the remarkable independence of the goat. Like his fellow-mountaineer, the ass, he has unshakable nerves, and will keep his presence of mind even when exposed to sudden and unaccustomed danger. How great a contrast is he in this respect to the sheep, which is always liable to sudden seizures of panic, and which, when frightened, invariably loses its head! This independence and sang-froid of the goat have proved of service to its masters on many occasions. It used to be the custom in almost all stables containing a number of valuable horses to keep a goat, which was allowed the free run of the building. The reason given was that, in the case of fire, when terrified horses will sometimes refuse to leave the stables and are therefore in great danger of perishing, such a goat will lead the way with the most perfect calmness, and, encouraged by this example, the bewildered horses will follow it and so escape destruction. I do not know personally of any instance where this has taken place, but the commonness of the custom asserts that it has probably been justified by experience. There seems to be something about a goat's imperturbable character which inspires confidence and respect in other animals. I have known instances of butchers who have kept goats in order to entice victims into their slaughter-yards. Usually as soon as an ox smells the taint of blood he becomes suspicious and

refuses to go farther, but if preceded by a goat he will follow quietly to the place of execution. In like manner specially trained goats are constantly used on the ships which bring sheep from abroad. At the unloading-places in the Thames these decoy-goats become very clever at their business. They will proceed to each part of the ship where sheep are penned and lead forth the huddled and frightened passengers with very little guidance from their masters; and they will continue in this way in the most methodical manner until the whole ship is cleared.

Not only does the goat show more initiative and greater independence than the sheep, but he also displays more versatility. This shows that, when free, he must have lived a kind of life involving frequent changes of habit, and must have been prepared to make shift to meet a great range of emergencies. Mr Romanes, in his book on Animal Intelligence,' quotes two "cases of an intelligent manœuvre performed by goats" which illustrate the expedients to which these animals occasionally have to resort :

"On both occasions two goats met on a ridge of rock with a precipice on each side, and too narrow to admit of their passing one another. One of these cases occurred on the ramparts of Plymouth Citadel, and was witnessed by many persons; the other took place at Ardenglass, in Ireland. In both these instances the animals

looked at each other for some time, as if they were considering their situation, and deliberating what was best to be done in the emergency. In each case one of the goats then knelt down with great caution, and crouched as close as it could lie, when the other walked over its back. This manœuvre on the part of goats has also been recorded by other writers, and it is not

so incredible as it may at first sight appear, if we remember that in their wild state these animals must not

unfrequently find themselves in this predicament."

Intellectually as well as physically the goat is less specialised for mountain life than the sheep, and hence he finds it easier to adapt himself to the environment of the farm. That he is quick at learning anything new, when he can be induced to give his mind to it, has been shown by the achievements of a most interesting troop of performing goats which has been exhibited several times in London. Another peculiarity of the goat tribe which shows that they are less specialised than the sheep is the way in which certain varieties tend to resemble kindred animals which are not goats. Thus there has been a long controversy as to whether the "Rocky Mountain goat" is really a goat or an antelope; while some of the wild goats of Northern India seem to be akin to the sheep tribe, since they have, on all four feet, certain digital pits or glands, which were at one time supposed to characterise the genus Ovis.

Another point about the goat which we find very useful, and which can be accounted for by ancestral habits, is the liberal supply of milk which it gives. Primarily this is owing to the fact that often two or three kids have to be provided for at the same time; but to some extent the special utility of the goat as a milch animal is due to the same wild habit as that which gave rise to the peculiar usefulness of the cow. The udder of the ewe is small when compared with that of a nanny-goat, and contains but little milk at any one time.

In this the ewe resembles the mare, and the cause is the

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