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the other side of this burial ground, fronting south on School street, was the house and garden of Thomas Scottow, joiner, who, in Feb. 1644, was appointed to superintend the graves, gates and fences. He and Mr. Richard Hutchinson divided the north side of School street. Zaccheus Bosworth lived at the corner on the west end, and those southward of him had the common on their west. The south-east corner of School street was the estate of Mr. Atherton Hough, ^sometimes spelt Hoffe:) he was often a representative of the town in the general courts. His neighbour on School street was Arthur Perry, worthy of note as town drummer on all important occasions. His services entitled him to a salary of £5 in 1638, and provision was made in 1643, for the instruction of such as were candidates to become his successors. A barber by the name of Francis Lisle*kept opposite to where the Old South stands, and three doors above him was William Aspinwall, who was a notary publick and recorder, after his return from banishment. His estate extended from the main or high street, to the common, and we find the name of Bomsted near him.

At the south-cast corner of Winter street was the widow Jane Parker, and on the Opposite corner, Robert Blolt. Boylston market place belonged to an Oliver, and the opposite corner to Robert Wing. Deacon Colburn westward of whom there were six lots, Belcher, TaImage, Snow, Walker, Brisco, Flacke, lived on the high street at the northerly corner of Elliot street, and deacon Jacob Elliot, from whom the street derived its name, was his neighbour on the south corner. We find no private property south of this: and the next allotment on the east side of the high street was Garret Bourne's, at the head of Essex street, but so far down as to give him the cove on the south. His next neighbour was Edward Rainsford, whose name is still retained for the lane that was afterwards opened in the vicinity of his estate. Griffith Bowen was on the north corner of Essex street, and Mr Thomas Fowle's possession was one house and garden five estates north of him. Robert Woodward lived at the south and Thomas Wheeler at the north corner of Bedford street, the latter having the lane S. the high street W. the watering place E. and Wm. Blaintaine N. who also had the watering place east. The widow Elizabeth Purton lived at the south-west corner of Summer street, and Nath. Woodward, sen. who had a numerous family, opposite to her. Robcjt. Remolds owned the corner of Milk street oppositethe OldSouthf-aod twd octatas' befoliriiiift-was Nath. Bishop, from whom came the name of Bishop's alley, once appropriated to Hawley street.

* It is not certain whether he was the barher chirurgeon, who lost his life in a snow storm, while on his way to Roxhury to draw a tooth. W. W. P. h. 2. ch. IS.

Jeremy Houchin, who was a tanner by trade, was located at the corner of Hanover and Court streets (Concert hall) and had his tan-pits and tan-yards there. Down that side of Court street were the families of Makepeace, Thwing, Joshua Scottow, (of whom we have a memoir in the fourth volume of the Hist. Coll. 2d. Series.) Beck, Brown and Biggs. Thomas Marshall, who was a shoemaker besides being ferryman, owned a lot which falls near the block between Union street and Marshall lane. He had the street S. W. and N. W. and the marsh south-east: the extent of his lot was about half an acre. At the north end the whole sea board was lotted out, beginning at the mill creek and following the shore to the north end of Snow-hill-street: we shall have occasion to,name the families hereafter. Sudbury street was occupied on both sides, and lots extending from the cove on the north to the lane (Green st.) on the south were improved with dwelling houses and gardens as far as 'Mill alley.' The rest of the north and west parts of the town was owned in large lots, said to be in the mill field and new field. Among others we notice Thomas Buttolph who had about five acres in each of those fields, an acre and a half between Essex and Bedford streets, besides his house and garden midway between Market and Court streets. The name of Buttolph street may probably be traced to him. Capt. Christopher Stanley was also a large owner of estates in various parts, and was Buttolph's neighbour on the north. Ensign Thomas Savage at one time owned in the same neighbourhood, and a little above them Capt. Thomas Hawkins, which last had also an estate in the vicinity of the street that bears his name. Near Fort hill we find among others the names of Richard Gridley and Edward Belcher. Fart of Purchase street formerly was called by the name of the latter, and we have now in that quarter a Gridley lane.

These researches have informed us of the number and extent of most of the high ways, which existed at the period of twenty years after the settlement of the town. The first orders on record upon this subject were passed in October, 1636: we have given some extracts on page 83, and shall be the more copious here, to save the labour of future inquirers.

There was a high way, sometimes called the high street, laid out from the head of the dock to Mr. Colburn's field, a little south of Elliot street, and beyond that was the 'foot way unto Samuel Wilbour's field next Roxbury.' On the east side of this high way Essex street was laid out, but had no particular name: so was it with Bedford street, which was afterwards called Pond-street, with reference to the watering place to which it led. Summer street and High street had the name of Mill street or lane, because they led to the widow Tuttle's mill. Milk-street was called the Fort street, it being the thorough fare from the high street to the works at Fort hill. State street is called the Water street in Mr. Wilson's deed. Court street as far as Market street had the name of Centry hill street. From the chapel burial ground north and from Market street west to the bottom of Sudbury street, the way was known as Sudbury street, doubtless in reference to the part of England from which many of the Boston people emigrated. In March 1640 it was ordered that the street from Mr. Hough's to the Centry hill should be kept open forever: this was School street and part of Beacon street. Winter, Boylston and Elliot streets were at that time lanes. Thefirst hasat some period borne the name of Blott's lane, from Robert Blott, the first proprietor of one of the eastern corners.

Hanover street north from the mill-creek, and also Marshall's lane, we think are described in the following provision: 1636, October. 'The sireete waye from the gates next James Everill's, toward the Mylne, is to runne straight along in an even line to John Pemberton's house, and to rainge betweene Thomas Marshall's house and Serjeant Savage's, and to bee within the street betweene payle and payle on each side, two poles broad.*

'A layne to goe from cove to cove, between Thomas Paynter and Thomas Marshall's^ one pole and a half between payle and payle.'

We can trace nothing of Hanover street farther north: in a deed from Thomas Clarke of Dorchester, merchant, to Christopher Stanley we find something like the original of Fleet and Tileston st. though it surprises us to see one of them 'thirty six foote broad unto the lowermost highway and from thence to low water marke thirty foote,'whereas the other 'going towards the mill hill,' was only twelve foote. This lowermost highway was Ann Street' upon the sea bank,' and before Walter Merry's at the North battery it was 16 ft. broad. It followed the shore, as we have supposed, to the mill creek inlet, and was completed in the following order.

'The land at the head of the cove, round about by John Glover's, Geo. Burden's, Hugh Gunnison's, Capt. W. Tyng's, Wm. Franklin's, Robert Nash's and eight foot to eastward of it, is high way—as also from the eastward side of the 8 feet, and round about by the corner of Edw. Bendall's brick house, and so by S. Cole's house, as also to E. Tyng's wharf

'- Pec. 4. 0,-dtred, a fence to he made hetween the two necks.

shall go a high way of twenty foot.'* Here E. Tyng had a house, yard, warehouse and brew-house.

There was also a passage way of seven foot, up from the creek near Bendall's to the lower part of Mr. Keayne's garden at his mud-wall house, in 1639, which probably answers to Wilson's lane or Exchange street. And there was a lane by the old meeting house: Henry Webb, a merchant who lived at the corner had the market place north, and on the east the old meeting house and the lane, which terminated at the Springate or high way by the spring.

CHAPTER XXI.

"Full were our cities with the sons of art,
And trade and joy in every busy street
Mingling were heard."

'Straits and difficulties,' says Hutchinson,'at the beginning of the colony had produced industry and good husbandry, and then they soon raised provisions enough for their own support, and an overplus for exportation. We hear but little of trade for the first seven years, except a small traffick with the natives, by barter of toys, and the few utensils, tools and clothing they at first thought necessary, in exchange for furs and skins. What the planters brought with them consisted principally of materials for their buildings, necessary tools for their husbandry, stock for their farms, and clothing for themselves and families; and those who had more estate than was sufficient for these purposes, were country gentlemen, unacquainted with commerce, and never employed themselves in it. People in general turned their minds to provide comfortable lodgings, and to bring under improvement so much land as would afford them necessary support, and this was enough to employ them. After a few years, by hard labour, and hard fare, the land produced more than was consumed by the inhabitants; the overplus was sent abroad to the West-Indies, the Wine-Islands, and other places. Returns were made in the produce of the respective countries, and in bullion, the most of which, together with the furs produced from the natives, went to England,

* Town Records, Feh. 1849. The'precise location of Glover, tc. is less certain than that of almost any other persons, whose names occur to us. We conclude they were situated • long Union street and Dock square, and accordingly have ventured to express ourselves thus in defining the extent of the dock.

to pay for the manufactures continually necessary from thence. As hands could be spared from husbandry and labour in providing their houses, they were taken off, and some employed in sawing boards, splitting staves, shingles and hoops, others in the fishery, and as many as were capable of it, in building small vessels for the fishery, and for coasting and foreign trade. Thus gradually and insensibly they seem to have fallen into that trade most natural to the country, and adapted to their peculiar circumstances, without any premeditated scheme, or projection for that purpose. Their primary views in their removal, were the enjoyment of civil and religious liberty. Merchants and others, for the sake of gain, when they saw a prospect of it, afterwards came over, and incorporated with them, and caused a great increase of commerce, and led the legislators to measures for the further improvement of it. For encouraging the fishery, an act was made in 1639 to free all estates, employed in catching, making or transporting fish, from all duties and public taxes, and all persons were restrained by a penalty from using any cod or bass fish, for manuring the ground; and all fishermen during the season for business, and all ship-builders, were by the same act excused from trainings.

'In the year 1642 the 'House of Commons passed a memorarable resolve in favour of the Massachusetts colony,'containing this ordinance: "that all merchandizing goods,- that by any person or persons whatsoever, merchant or other, shall be exported out of this kingdom of Englnrra into New-England to be spent, used or employed there, or being of the growth of those colonics, shall be from thence imported hither or shall be laden or put on board any ship or vessel for necessaries in passing to and fro, and all and'every the owner or owners thereof' shall be freed and discharged of and from paying and yielding any custom, subsidy, taxation or other duty, cither inward or outward". It had, however, this proviso, "until the House of Commons shall take further order therein to the contrary."'

..Iohnson?s account of the extent of our commerce and its beneficial effects is too lively to be omitted. 'Those^says-he, 'who were formerly forced to fetch most of the-bread they eat and beer they drank a thousand leagues by sea, are through the blessing of the Lord so encreased, that they have not only fed their elder sisters, Virginia, Barbadoes and many of the Summer islands, that were preferred before [them] for fruitfulness, but also the grand mother of us all, even the fertile isle of Great Britain. Beside, Portugal hath had many a mouthful of bread and fish from us, in exchange of their Madeira liquor, and also Spain; nor could it be imagined that this wilderness should turn a mart for merchants in so short a space.

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