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America by M. Antillon was consulted in its construction. There is ground for complaint against the inaccuracy with which the eastern coast of Mexico to the north of Vera Cruz has been hitherto surveyed. The part contained between the mouths of the Rio Bravo del Norte and the Mississipi is almost as little known as the eastern coast of Africa between Orange River and FishBay. The expedition of MM. Cevallos and Herera, provided with superb astronomical inst, uments, is engaged in taking exact plans of those desert and arid regions. Meanwhile I have followed, for the detail of the eastern coast, the map * of the gulph of Mexico, published by order of the king of Spain in 1799, and retouched in 1803. I have however corrected several points from the excellent observations of M. Ferrer, already cited. This able observer, having placed the port of Vera Cruz 9 45' less to the west than is done by me, I have reduced the positions of the places determined by him in the environs of Vera Cruz, to the longitude resulting from the calculations of M. Oltmanns. The error of the old naps consisted especially in the longitude of the Bar of Santander, which, according to M. Fere", is 1° 45' 15 to the west of Vera Cruz, while the map of
* Carta esserica que comprehende las costas del Seno Mexicano, construida en el Deposito Hidrografico de Madrid, 1799.
the Deposito admits 1° 23' of difference of longitude. I have constantly followed the observations of M. Ferrer, in reducing the longitude of Tanuagua on that of Santander. The territory comprised between the ports of Acapulco and Vera Cruz, between Mexico, Guanaxuata, the valley of Santiago and Valladolid, between the volcano of Jorullo and the Sierra de Toluco, is constructed from a great number of geodesical surveys, taken by me either with a sextant or the graphometer of Adams. The part contained between Mexico, Zacatecas, Fresnillo, Sombrerete, and Durango, is founded on a manuscript plan which Yi. Oteyza had the goodness to construct for ine, from materials collected by him in his journey to Durango. Having marked with great exactness the rhombs and the distances estimated from the pace of the mules, his plan merits undoubtedly some confidence, particularly as the positions of Guanaxuata and S. Juan de Rio were corrected by direct observations of my own, independent of one another. By this means it became casy to convert time into distance, and to ascertain the value of the leagues of the country. The journals of MM. Rivera, Lafora, and Mascaro, which we have already cited, were of assistance for the provincias internas, particularly for the routes from Durango to Chihuahua, and from thence to Santa Fe and Arispe in the province of Sonora. However, these materials could only be
employed after long discussions and comparisons with the data collected by M. Velasquez in his expedition to California. The routes of Rivera very often differ a good deal from those of M. Mascaro; and we are particularly embarrassed as to the difference of meridians between Mexico and Zacatecas, or between Santa Fe and Chihuahua, as we shall afterwards have occasion to explain. The geography of Sonora has been rectified by M. Costanzo. This philosopher, as modest as he is profound, has for thirty years been collecting whatever is connected with the geographical knowledge of this vast kingdom. He is the only engineer officer who has addicted himself to discussions on the difference in longitude of the most distant points from the capital. He has himself formed very interesting plans, in which we may perceive how far ingenious combinations may, to a certain point, supply the want of astronomical observations. I render this justice to M. Costanzo with the more pleasure, as I have seen many manuscript maps in Mexico, of which the scales of longitude and latitude appeared merely as an accidental Ornament. The following is an enumeration of the maps and plans consulted by me for the detail of my map; I think I have brought together every thing of importance which existed up to 1804. Carte manuscrite de la Nouvelle Espagne, dressée par ordre du vice-roi Buccarelli, par MAs.
Costanzo et Mascaro". It comprehends the immense space between the 39° and 42° of latitude, and extends from Cape Mendocino to the mouth of the Mississipi. Much care appears to have been bestowed on this work, which has served me for the Moqui, for the environs of the Rio Nabajoa, and for the route of the Chevalier la Croix in 1778, from Chihuahua to Cohahuila and Texas. Mapa del Azobispado de Mewico, por Don Jose Antonio de Alzatet, a manuscript map drawn up in 1768, and revised by the author in 1772, and which, so far at least as I have examined it, is very bad. Several mining places are to be found in it, which are interesting for the mineralogist. I have made no use of the map of New Spain, published at Paris in 1765, by M. de Fer, nor of that of Governor Pownall, published in 1777, nor even of the map of Siguenza, which the academy of Paris engraved under the name of Alzate, and which has been hitherto looked on as the best map of Mevico. Carte generale de la nouvelle-Espagnes from the 14° to the 27° of latitude, drawn up by M. Costanzo. This manuscript map is valuable for an acquaintance with the coast of Sonora. I consulted it also for the part which stretches out from Acapulco to Tehuantepec. Carte manuscrite des cétes depuis Acapulco jusqu' à Sonzonate", executed by the brigantine Activo, in 1794. Carte manuscrite de toute la nouvelle Espagne, dressée par 41. Pelasquez, en 1772f. It comprises the countries situated between the 19 and 34° of latitude, between the mouth of the Rio Colorado, and the meridian of Cholula. It was destined to exhibit the situation of the most remarkable mines of New Spain, particularly those of Sonora. Carte manuscrite d'une partie de la Nouvelle Espagnet, from the parallel of Tehuantepec to that of Durango, drawn up by order of the viceroy Revellagigedo, by Don Carlos de Urutia. This is the only map of the country which exhibits the division into intendancies, and it has been very useful to me in this respect. Mapa de la Provincia de la Compañia de Jesus de Nueva España ||, engraved at Mexico in 1765.
* Manuscript map of New Spain constructed by order of the Viceroy Buccarelli, by MM. Costanzo and Mascaro. Trans.
+ Map of the archbishopric of Mexico, by Don Joseph Antonio de Alzate. Trans.
f General map of New Spain.