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of Guadalaxara between Zapotlan and Sayula, between Ayotitlan and the Ciudad de la Purificacion, to Guatlan, one of the ports of the South Sea. All north of this line belongs to the audiencia of Guadalaxara; and all south of it to the audiencia of Mexico. In its present state New Spain is divided into twelve intendancies, to which we must add three other districts, very remote from the capital, which have preserved the simple denomination of provinces. These fifteen divisions are, I. UNDER THE TEMPERATE ZONE 82,000 leagues, with 677,000 souls, or eight inhabitants to the square league. A. RF& son of THE No RTH, an interior region. 1. Provincia de Nuevo Mexico, along the Rio del Norte to the north of the parallel of 319. 2. Intendencia de Nueva Biscaya, to the south-west of the Rio del Norte, on the central table-land which declines rapidly from Durango towards Chihuahua. I3. REGION of THE No RTH-w Est, in the vicinity of the Great Ocean. 3. Provincia de la Nueca California, or north-west coast of North America possessed by the Spaniards. 4. Provincia de la antigua California. Its southern extremity enters the torrid zone. 5. Intendencia de la Sonora. The most southern part of Cinaloa, in which the celebrated mines of Copala and Rosario are situated, also passes the tropic of Cancer. C. Region of The North-East, adjoining the gulf of Mexico. 6. Intendencia de San Luis Potosí. It comprehends the provinces of Texas, la colonia de Nuevo Santander and Cohahuila, El Nuevo Reyno de Leon, and the districts of Charcas, Altamira, Catorce, and Ramos. These last districts compose the intendancy of San Luis properly so called. The southern part, which extends to the south of the Barra de Santander and the Real de Catorce, belongs to the torrid zone. II. UNDER THE TORRID ZONE, 36,500 square leagues, with 5, 160,000 souls, or 141 inhabitants to the square league. D. CENTRAL REGION. 7. Intendencia de Zacatecas, excepting the part which extends to the north of the mines of Fresnillo. 8. Intendencia de Guadalavara. 9. Intendencia de Guanawuato. 10. Intendencia de Palladolid. 11. Intendencia de Merico. 12. Intendencia de la Puebla. 13. Intendencia de l'era Cruz. E. REGION of THE south-west.

14. Intendencia de Oaraca. 15. Intendencia de Merida. The divisions in this table are founded on the physical state of the country. We see that nearly seven-eighths of the inhabitants live under the torrid zone. The population becomes thinner as we advance towards Durango and Chihuahua. In this respect New Spain bears a striking analogy to Hindostan, which in its north parts is bounded by regions almost uncultivated and uninhabited. Of five millions who inhabit the equinoxial part of Mexico, four-fifths live on the ridge of the Cordillera, or table-lands whose elevation above the level of the sea equals that of the passage of Mount Cenis. New Spain, considering its provinces according to their commercial relations, or the situation of the coasts, is divided into three regions. I. PROVINCES OF THE INTERIOR, which do not extend to the ocean. 1. Nuevo Merico. * 2. Nueva Biscaya. 3. Zacatecas. 4. Guana.ruato. II. MARITIME PROVINCES of the eastern coast opposite to Europe: 5. San Luis Potosi. 6. Pera Cruz. 7. Merida, or Yucatan.

III. MARITIME PROVINCES of the western coast opposite to Asia. 8 New California. 9. Old California. 10. Sonora. 11. Guadalarara. 12. Walladolid. 13. A sevico. 14. Puebla. 15. Oavaca. These divisions will one day possess great political interest, when the cultivation of Mexico shall be less concentrated on the central table-land or ridge of the cordillera, and when the coasts shall become more populous. The maritime provinces of the west will send their vessels to Nootka, to China, and the East Indies. The Sandwich islands, inhabited by a ferocious, but industrious and enterprising people, appear more likely destined to receive Mexican than European colonists. . They afford an important stage to the nations who carry on commerce in the Great Ocean. The inhabitants of New Spain and Peru have never yet been able to profit by their advantageous position on a coast opposite Asia and New Holland. They do not even know the productions of the South Sea islands. The bread fruit tree and sugarcane of Otaheite, that precious reed, the cultivation of which has had such a happy influence on West India commerce, will one day be received

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by them from Jamaica, the Havanah, and Caraccas, and no longer from the more adjoining islands. What efforts have not been made by the United States of North America, within the last ten years, to open a communication with the western coast, with the same coast on which the Mexicans possess the finest ports, but without activity and withOut COII, II, CICC. According to the ancient division of the country, the Reyno de Vueva Galicia contained more than 14,000 square leagues, and nearly a million of inhabitants : it included the intendancies of Zacatecas and Guadalaxara", as well as a small part of that of San Luis I'otosi. The regions now known by the denomination of the sev n intendancies of Guanaxuato, Walladolid or Mech acan, Mexico, Puebla, Vera Cruz, Oaxaca, and Merida, formed, along with a small portion of the intendancy of San Luis Potosif, the Reyno do scovico, properly so called. This kingdom consequently contained more than 27,000 square leagues, ind nearly four millions and a half of inhabitants. Another division of New Spain, equally ancient and less vague, is that which distinguishes New Spain, properly so called, from the provincias in

* With the exception of the most southern part, which contains the volcana of Colima and the village of Ayotitan.

+ The most southern part through which the river of PaIlul CO Illins,

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