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ternas. To the latter belongs all to the north and north-west of the kingdom of Nueva Galicia, with the exception of the two Californias; consequently, 1. the small kingdom of Leon; 2. the colony of New Santander ; 3. Texas; 4. New Biscay; 5. Sonora; 6. Cohahuila; and 7. New Mexico. The provincius internas del sireynato, which contain 7814 square leagues, are distinguished from the provincias internas de la Comandancia (of Chihuahua), erected into a capitania general in 1779, which contain 59,375 square leagues. Of the twelve new intendancies, three are situated in the provincias internas, Durango, Sonora, and San Luis Potosi. We must not, however, forget that the intendant of San Luis is only under the direct authority of the viceroy for Leon, Santander, and the districts near his residence, those of Charcas, Catorce, and Altamira. The governments of Cohahuila and Texas make also part of the intendancy of San Luis Potosi, but they belong directly to the comandancia general de Chihuahua. The following to bles will throw some light on these very complicated territorial divisions. Let us divide all New Spain into * A. Provincias sujetas al 17 roy de Nueva España; 59,109 square leagues, with 547,790° souls: the ten intendancies of Mexico, Puebla, Vera Cruz, Oaxaca, Merida, Walladolid, Guadalaxara, Zacatecas, Guanaxuato, and San Luis Potosi (without including Cohahuila and Texas) The two Californias. B. Provincias sujetas al comandante general de provincias internas, 59,375 square leagues, with 359,200 inhabitants: The two intendancies of Durango and Sonora ; The province of Nuevo Mexico; Cohahuila and Texas. The whole of New Spain, l 18,478 square leagues, with 5,837,100 inhabitants. These tables exhibit the surface of the provinces calculated in square leagues of 25 to the degree, according to the general map accompanying this work. The first calculations were made at Mexico in the end of 1803, by M. Oteyza and myself. My geographical labours having since that period attained to greater perfection, M. Oltmanns was so good as to recalculate the whole territorial surfaces. He executed this operation with the precision which characterizes whatever he undertakes, having formed squares of which the sides did not contain more than three minutes. The population indicated in my tables is what may be supposed to have existed in 1803. I have explained in the 4th chapter (page 97. 110) the principles on which the changes were made in the numbers obtained by the enumeration of 1793. I am aware that modern geographers admit only from two to three millions of inhabitants for Mexico. In all times the population of Asia has been exaggerated, and that of the Spanish possessions in America lowered. We forget that with a fine climate and fertile soil, population makes rapid advances even in countries the worst administered; and we also forget that men scattered over an immense territory suffer less from the imperfections of the social state than when the population is very concentrated. We are uncertain as to the limits which ought to be assigned to New Spain to the north and east. It is not enough that a country has been run over by a missionary monk, or that a coast has been seen by a vessel of war, to consider it as belonging to the Spanish colonies of America. Cardinal Lorenzana printed at Mexico, even in 1770, that New Spain, through the bishopric of Durango, bordered perhaps on Tartary and Greenland * ! We are now too well instructed in geography to yield ourselves up to such vague suppositions A viceroy of Mexico caused the American colonies of the Russians on the peninsula

* This number ought to be 5,479,095. Trans. V () L. I. E. E.

* “Y aun se ignora si la Nueva España por lo mas remoto

de la diocess de Durango confina con la Tartaria y Groelandia,

per las Californias con la Tartaria, y por el Nuevo Merico con la Groelandia.” Lorenzana, p. 38.

of Alaska, to be visited from San Blas. The attention of the Mexican government was for a long time turned to the north-west coast, especially since the establishment at Nootka, which the court of Madrid was compelled to abandon to avoid a war with England. The inhabitants of the United States carry their civilization towards the Missoury. They gradually approach the coast of the Great Ocean, to which the fur trade invites them. The period approaches when, through the rapid progress of human cultivation, the boundaries of New Spain will join those of the Russian empire, and the great confederation of American republics. At present, however, the Mexican government extends no farther along the western coast than the mission of St. Francis, to the south of Cape Mendocin, and the village of Taos in New Mexico. The boundaries of the intendancy of San Luis Potosi on the east towards the state of Louisiana are not very well determined; the congress of Washington endeavour to confine them to the right bank of the Rio Bravo del Norte, while the Spaniards comprehend under the denomination of province of Texas, the savanas which extend to the Rio Mexicano or Mermentas, to the east of the Rio Sabina. . The following table exhibits the surface and population of the greatest political associations of Europe and Asia. It will furnish curious comParisons with the present state of Mexico.

--- Square leagues Lubabitants Great political associations in 1808. of 25 to the Total to the degree population. square gree. league. ussian empire - - - - - - - 942,452 40,000,000 42 1. European part - - - - 215,809 36,400,000 | 169 2. Asiatic part - - - - 720,644 3,597,000 5 The single government of Irkutzk - 350,000 680,600 2 The single government of Tobolsk - 200,000 72,547 l All Europe - - - - - 476,111 182,599,000 || 383 The United States of North America, viz. 1. With Louisiana - - - - 260,340 6,800,000 22 2. Without Louisiana” - - - - 156,240 6,715,000 43 3. Without Louisiana and the Indian territory (in Georgia and Western Waters) - - - - - 78,120 6,655,000 85 Hindostan on this side (en-dega) the Gangest - - 162,827 |

The territory

without Louisiana amounts only to 117,478, and not 156,240 square leagues. See this explained in note, p. 278,

+ According to Arrowsmith's beautiful map of India, 1804. (Journal Astronomique de MM. Zach et Lindenau, 1807, p. 361.) The rest of the data from the classical work of M. Hassel, Statistical View of the States

* The calculations regarding America proceed on an erroneous estimation of the square mile.

by the translator. Trans.

of Europe, No. I. (1805,) in German.

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